Motivation perspectives affecting adult participation in leisure and recreation activities in health clubs within five-star hotels in Nairobi, Kenya
Pepela, Anthony Wekesa
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Despite hotel entrepreneurs structuring leisure and recreation activities in ways that maximise inception and participation. most health club members prefer activities that do not expend much energy. As such most of them do not attain requisite levels of physical fitness while others drop-out all together after some time. They thus do not experience physiological benefits. This coupled with the change in life style; diet and technology pose a great health risk. This study was therefore designed to determine factors that motivate adults, influence their preferences, choice and possible drop-out from participating in different recreation activities in five-star hotel health clubs in Nairobi. The study adopted a descriptive survey method that covered 109 health club members strategically sampled and 12 health club instructors purposively sampled from four out of the eight five-star hotels in Nairobi. Out of the 109 respondents, n=54 (49.5%) were males while n=55 (50.46%) were females. Of these respondents, n=65 (60%) were married, n=43 (39%) single, and n=1 (1%) divorced. Out of 106 respondents who stated their occupation, n=64 (60%) were employed, n=28 (26.4%) were self employed, n=12 (11.3%) not employed and n=3 (2.8%) retired. Data were collected using a close ended questionnaire which was subjected to the health club members and an open ended interview schedule subjected to the health club instructors. Data were then analysed through the statistical package of Social Sciences (SPSS) for descriptive statistics by use of factor analysis, one way ANOVA, and t-test. The results indicated significant differences in factors that; motivate both males and females to participate in physical activities (p=0.01<0.05). influence their choice of activities (p=0.01<0.05). make them dislike other activities (p=0.006<0.05), prefer the activities they choose (p=0.01<0.05) and those that may lead to their drop-out (p=0.0<0.05).The one way ANOVA results revealed that there were significant differences between males and females in; achievement (p=0.003<0.05), extrinsic (p=0.001<0.05), fitness orientation (p=0.0001< 0.05) and skill development(p=0.0001 <0.05) factors that motivated participation in physical activities, while there were no significant differences in situational factors (p=0.242>0.05). The statistical analysis further indicated that there were no significant differences in extrinsic factors that lead to drop-out in regards to gender, while significant differences existed for the intrinsic factors that lead to drop-out. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the policy makers start a campaign to demystify the idea that some activities are culturally inappropriate for specific genders and that the hotels introduce more exciting physical activities so as to facilitate higher membership enrolment and encourage the existing members not to drop-out. This will in effect enable; more members achieve their set goals. the hotel health clubs to be more self reliant and the government to realise its goal of creating a healthy nation.