Pedagogical constraints in the learning of upper primary children with emotional and behavioral disorders in central province rehabilitation schools
Ngundo, Lucy Wangechi
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Emotional and behavioral disorders have been recognized as a problem in special education globally. However, in Kenya the government, religious organizations, and Non-Governmental Organizations have made little efforts in providing special education and to identify w id assist children with emotional and behavioral disorders. The set out study intended to find out pedagogical constraints in the learning of children with emotional and behavioral disorders in central province Rehabilitation Schools. The objective of this study was to find out the pedagogical preparation of teachers and the instructional strategies employed by the teachers in these Schools. It also set out to find the adequacy and appropriateness of the resource materials used in teaching. Another objective was to find out strategies teachers used in managing behavioral problems of these children in class and the difficulties experienced by teachers in teaching children who are emotionally disturbed in Rehabilitation Schools. These objectives were considered to determine the pedagogical constraints in the learning of children with emotional and behavioral disorders in central province Rehabilitation Schools. The population of the study was tour hundred and sixty children in Rehabilitation Schools in Central province (one hundred and eighty girls and two hundred and eighty boys). The sample of the study was drawn from four purposively selected Rehabilitation Schools. one for girls (Kirigiti) and the others for boys, nika, Othaya, and Wamumu. purposive sampling was used to select upper primary classes 5.6 and 7_ Simple random sampling using the raffle design method was used to select a sample, which comprised pupils as follows: Kirigiti 45. Othaya 15. nika 15, and Wamumu 15. The sample also comprised 12 class masters or mistresses, and 4 headteachers. They were purposively sampled out of a total number of fifty-four teachers (thirty-one males and twenty-three females) in the four Rehabilitation Schools. Four instruments were used to collect data: a researcher-made questionnaire for teachers, for pupils and another one for the l lead teachers. The questions had 12 items each. "the questions were closed and open-ended. Observation schedule was also used. The instruments were pre-tested at Kabete Rehabilitation School in Nairobi. This helped to enhance the validity and reliability of the research instruments. The split half technique of assessing reliability of data was employed. Reliability coefficient was calculated using the Spearman-Brown formula. A coefficient correlation of the instruments was established by using Pearson PrMuct Moment Correlation Coefficient formula In order to analyze data, descriptive statistics was used. Frequency tables were constructed to determine the distribution of the response. 'They were then converted into percentages. The findings revealed in part that: There was inadequate pedagogical preparation of teachers, and a high percentage did not use proper instructional strategies in teaching in Rehabilitation Schools. there was also inadequate and minimum use of aids/resources Teachers also experienced behavioral difficulties from pupils and the teachers did not use appropriate behavior modification strategies for these children. The results of the findings led to the conclusion there are pedagogical constraints in The learning of children in Rehabilitation Schools. The study therefore recornrnends that, teachers he properly trained., in-serviced and the government to provide adequate re ces to improve learning in Rehabilitation Schools.