Hypoglycemic Effect of Lippia javanica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice
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Lippia javanica is widely distributed throughout Kenya where it is used extensively in traditional herbal preparations. An infusion of the leaves is commonly used as a decongestant for colds and coughs including diabetes, however, its efficacy profiles have not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of this plant in white male alloxan-induced albino mice. The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous leaf extracts was orally and intraperitoneally bioscreened in alloxan induced diabetic mice at different doses of 25 mg/kgbwt, 48.4 mg/kgbwt, 93.5 mg/kgbwt, 180.9 mg/kgbwt and 350 mg/kgbwt. The treatment effects were then compared with the controls. Phytochemical composition was assessed using standard procedures. The extract showed hypoglycemic activity at dose levels of 25, 48.4, 93.5, 180.9 and 350 mg/kg body weight in a dose independent manner. The extracts contained tannins, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, alkaloids, and free or bound anthraquinones. The observed hypoglycemic activity could be associated with the phytochemicals present in this plant extract. In conclusion the results showed that the plant extracts were effective in reducing blood sugar levels and revealed the presence of vital phytochemicals which possess antidiabetic activities. The study therefore, confirmed the traditional use of these herbs and established their efficacy data that can guide proper use of these plants in the management of diabetes mellitus. Consideration should be made to carry out the same studies using higher animals or subject the plant to organic solvent extraction and compare activities of both aqueous and organic fractions.