Levels of Iodide, fluoride and Chloride in Amaranth grain in Kenya
Kipngetich, Tonui M.
Wanjau, Ruth N.
Gikonyo, Nicholas K.
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The levels of chloride (Cl-), fluoride (F-) and iodide (I-), in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus cruentus) leaves at different stages of maturity (25 days, 50 days and 75 days) and seeds from four counties (Kiambu, Kericho, Bungoma and Kisii) of Kenya were quantitatively determined. The levels were determined using potentiometric and titrimetric methods. The mean levels of Cl-, F- and I- in leaves of A. hypochondriacus and A. cruentus were not significantly different. The mean levels in leaves of the two species indicated that amaranthus grown in Kiambu had Cl- and F- at 673.81 and 7.61 mg/100 g respectively while I- was at 4.29 mg/ kg. Leaves from amaranthus grown in Kericho county had mean levels of Cl- and F- of 635.24 and 7.22 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively while I- was 3.41 mg/kg. The mean I- level in amaranth leaves grown in Bungoma was 2.54 mg/kg while Cl- and F- were 503.74 and 9.67 mg/100 g respectively. The mean Cl- and F- level in leaves from Kisii were 595.54 and 8.96 mg/100 g of dry weight respectively, while the mean I- level was 5.26 mg/kg dry weight. Samples of leaves collected in the dry season and in dry season were also accessedThe levels of all inorganic anions determined were found to be within the allowed daily intake (ADI) values. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that leaves and grains from both species of amaranthus grown in most regions in Kenya may be consumed for nutritional requirements. The consumption of between 250 g and 300 g of fresh amaranthus leaves is sufficient to provide the required daily intake of all the anions considered in this study for all healthy individuals.