Double stratification effects on heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD nanofluid flow over a flat surface
Mutuku, Winifred Nduku
Oluwole, Daniel Makinde
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The focus of this work is to theoretically investigate the problem of double stratification on heat and mass transfer in an unsteady hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a flat surface. The model employed for the nanofluid transport equations incorporate the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis in the presence of thermal and solutal stratification. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations and their associated boundary conditions are initially transformed into dimensionless form by using similarity variables, before being solved numerically by employing the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth-order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, viz. solutal and thermal stratification, Lewis number, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and unsteadiness on the fluid velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are graphically depicted and quantitatively discussed in detail taking into account the practical applications of each profile. It is noted that thermal stratification reduces the fluid temperature, while the solutal stratification reduces the nanoparticle concentration.