Teachers’ motivation as determinant of inclusive education in early childhood centers, Kampala District, Uganda
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Studies from other countries with different social economic and political environments have identified teacher motivation as one of the factors that enhance Inclusive Education, while those specific to Uganda were yet to be determined. Whereas the Inclusive Education Act of 2011 was enacted in Uganda to ensure that all children benefit from education, teacher motivation still remained a challenge as many children remained left out. The purpose of the study was to establish teachers’ motivational factors that influence the implementation of inclusive education in ECD centres in Uganda. The study specifically explored strategies currently used in motivating teachers in the implementation of Inclusive Education in early childhood and examined ; basing on Vroom‘s (1964) Valency Instrumental Expectancy theory how teachers’ attitudes, competency and satisfaction influence implementation of Inclusive Education. The study employed a descriptive survey research design, with qualitative and quantitative approaches. A non-random sample of MOEs officials, head teachers, inspectors of schools and teachers plus a random sample 355 teachers of lower primary and pre-primary classes participated in the study. Respondents were selected from the five divisions of Kampala Capital city in Uganda namely: Central, Kawempe, Makindye, Nakawa and Rubaga. A structured questionnaire (α=.824, CVI= 0.86) interview schedules (CVI=.81, CVI= .75) and focus group discussion guide (CVI= .80) were used to collect data. Frequency tables and content analysis were used to present and analyse the findings. Findings revealed that low salaries, lack of professional development and poor conditions of service led to low job satisfaction and neutral attitudes that prevented teachers from using the skills they had to implement inclusive education in ECD centres. It was concluded that stakeholders in education should seriously address de-motivating factors to empower teachers implement inclusive education more effectively. A large scale study is required to identify other possible factors that can motivate teachers in inclusive settings. It is recommended by this study that different teacher support programmes should be established to ensure that children are fully supported in inclusive education.