Anthelmintic Effectiveness of Selected Medicinal Plants used in Treating Sheep Helminthiases in Koibatek and Mogotio Sub Counties, Baringo County, Kenya
Kipsang, Job Kibet
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Helminthiasis is one of the most important diseases worldwide that cause heavy production losses in livestock. The disease is prevalent all over the world especially in developing countries and associated with poor management practices, lack of access to conventional anthelmintic drugs as a control or curative strategy and also greatly hampered by drug resistance exhibited by parasites. Farmers therefore resort to traditional medicinal plants for helminthiases treatment which lack information on their effectiveness, toxicity levels, dosages and safety. The current study aimed to determine anthelmintic effectiveness of six selected medicinal plants used in the traditional management and treatment of sheep helminthiases in Koibatek and Mogotio sub counties, Baringo County, Kenya. Field work was conducted in nine administrative units of Koibatek and Mogotio sub-counties. Demographic information on age and sex of informants was collected to check the existing knowledge and attitude on the use of medicinal plants. Further, field work was conducted to assess the prevalence of helminths in the two sub counties. Anthelmintic activities of six selected medicinal plants were tested at KALRO - Muguga North Laboratories in-vitro system using eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Five concentrations (6.25 mg/ul, 12.5 mg/ul, 25 mg/ul, 50 mg/ul and 100 mg/ul) of methanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of egg hatching and larval development. Levamisole (lOmg/ml) was included as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The results indicated that out of 130 respondents interviewed, 49 out of 83 men and 23 out of 47 female had knowledge on the use of medicinal plants but there was no significant association in the knowledge of medicinal plant with the gender (X2=63.33, d.f=48; P=0.068). Methanolic and water extracts from the six medicinal plants under investigation, showed biological activities in egg hatching and larval development in varying concentrations as compared to positive and negative controls. The findings indicated a significant difference in mean of eggs hatched (F = 65.31; P = 0.0001) in varying methanolic concentrations with the lowest concentration being significantly different from negative controls. Olea capensis displayed the least mean of eggs hatched (mean 1.00±1.00 larvae); followed by Leucas calostachys (mean 5.67±2.31 larvae). Jasminum floribundum had the highest mean of eggs hatched (mean 25.33±3.51) followed by Vepris simplicifolia (mean 24.33±2.52) and Olinia rochetiana (mean 22.00±1.73) at concentration of 50 mg/ul. In larval development, there was no " significant difference (F=2.613; P=0.080) in tire mean number of larvae killed by the various methanolic plant extracts at 100. mg/ul. Plant extract from 0. capensis had the highest number of dead larvae (mean of 9.33±0.577 larvae) followed by extracts from V. simplicifolia (mean of 9.0±1.0 larvae) and 0. rochetiana (9.0±1.0). A. aethiopicum had the least mean larvae killed (7.0±1.0). Prevalence of helminthes was higher in the year 2006 (mean 28.13± 1.73 animals) than all the years under consideration' (2006-20 12). Lowest prevalence rate was recorded in 20 12 with a mean of 19.70±1.50 animals infested with worms. Sheep had the highest percentage of infestation with helminths (mean 27.31±1.34) followed by goats (24.01±1.59) and least was cattle with mean of 18.21± 1.54 animals. There was significant difference (F=9.55; P=O.OOl) in helminth infestation among livestock. The findings of this study provide evidence on the potential use of medicinal plants for anthelmintic drug development from the plants in the study area. It is recommended that livestock farmers use the six medicinal plants to manage and treat sheep helminthiases and drug development. Bioactive substances from these plants should be identified.
- MST-Zoological Sciences