Species composition and abundance of mosquitoes and their disease transmissio potential in rural and urban areas of Kilifi County, Kenya
Ngugi, Njoroge John
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Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are found in both urban and rural areas in Kenya. Many mosquito species are important vectors of human disease causing pathogens notably malaria, filariasis and yellow fever. The total days of labor lost coupled with costs of treatment and the high mortality associated with these diseases make them a serious obstacle for development. There is need therefore for measures to . continuously control these insects. A study was conducted in Kilifi region of coastal Kenya to assess the mosquito s species composition, abundance and disease transmission potential in Kilifi town and Janbuni village 20 kilometers from Kilifi town. Data collection started in August 20 I0 toward the end of long rains. Assessing the composition and abundance of the mosquito species was carried out by dipping and incubation to adult emergence for larvae folJowed by identification, counting and recording. Adult mosquitoes were trapped, identified, counted and recorded by species. Individual insects were also sorted by sex and enumerated. The total mnnber of individuals per species was obtained The mosquit~ species recorded were Culex quinquefusciatus, Culex anmdororis, Culex tigripes; Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, Anophele., pretoriensis, Anophele., ";qumno.:m.,. Aedes aegypti, Aedes simpsoni and Erepodites inornoJ:us. The data on species abundance was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANONA), data on larval, iridoor , outdoor sex occurrence, human biting rates and entomological inoculation rates was subjected to a paired t-test of SPSS (17.0) and data on physiological and sporozoites status was subjected to Chi-Square Test. The significance level was set at p=O.05. The larval and adult species mean numbers wac not significantly different between Janbuni and KiJifi. There were significant differences between the mean nmnbers of larval species recorded in River ponds and temporary rain pools. Adult females and males also differed significantly indoors as well as oudoors. The effect of mosquito blood meal on sporozoites presence was evident. There were significant differences between the buman biting rates of Anopheles gambioe and Anopheles funestus as well as' entomological inoculation rates. Anopheles funestus recorded higher mean. However no infections were recorded in Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes species. The were more larval mosquitoes species recorded in Kilifi town area which could probably explain the role of temporaly ponds in species composition and abundance. The were almost equal numbers of adult species in the two sites probably indicating similar ideal ecological conditions for all the species. There is need therefore to encourage the members of the public to continue using treated bed nets to avoid infective mosquito bites.
- MST-Zoological Sciences