Social marketing mix and behavioural change to alcohol and tobacco usage among youth in the slums of Nairobi County, Kenya
Murigi, Elishiba Muthoni
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Social marketing is a strategic tool executed through the application of a customised marketing mix to influence behavioural change. Social marketing has been used globally to create awareness about health-related issues, such as prevention of HfV and AIDS. It has also been used widely in the promotion of the following important issues: responsible alcohol and tobacco usage; sexually responsible behaviour; hygiene among young children; and security. Despite the execution of various social marketing programs by change agents to influence behavioural change on alcohol and tobacco usage, individuals continue to suffer the serious consequences of irresponsible alcohol and tobacco usage. This study therefore investigated the influence of social marketing mix on behavioural change to alcohol and tobacco usage among the youth in the slums of Nairobi County, Kenya. The study adopted a positivist view by testing hypotheses derived from a predetermined conceptual framework. The study applied a mixed research design consisting of descriptive and explanatory research components. The target population comprised 158,624 members of youth groups from which a sample of 384 was statistically determined. Cluster and simple random sampling were used to select 384 respondents from the target population. Primary data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale. Interviews were also conducted with 10 youth group leaders. Quantitative data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Descriptive statistics were computed to describe the characteristics of the study variables whereas inferential statistics in form of simple and multiple regression analyses were used to establish the nature and magnitude of the relationships between independent and dependent variables and to test the hypothesised relationships. Adjusted R2 was used to measure the amount of variation in the dependent variables explained by the independent variable. An assesment of the models underlying statistical assumptions was conducted using confirmatory factor analysis, outliers test, testing for normality, homoscedasticity, linearity, multicollinearity, and autocorrelation. All the analysis was done using SPSS version 22. Directed content analysis was also applied to the qualitative data. The combined effect of the social marketing mix was found to be statistically significant as it explained 54.1% of behavioural change to alcohol and tobacco usage among the youth in slums of Nairobi County. Further, product, price, and promotion influenced behavioural change to alcohol and tobacco usage.The place variable was insignificant and therefore had no influence on behavioural change to alcohol and tobacco usage. Perception had no mediating effect on the relationship between social marketing mix and behavioural change, while facilitating factors were found to have a moderating influence on the relationship between social marketing mix and behavioural change to alcohol and tobacco usage. The study concluded that inorder to achieve the desired behavioural change; change agents should develop programs that intergrate all the components of the social marketing mix. The study recommends that organisations which execute social marketing programmes can use these findings to determine the product, price, and promotion strategies required to achieve behavioural change to alcohol and tobacco usage. The findings of this study could also be applied in the development of social marketing campaigns on responsible alcohol and tobacco usage. Further, lawenforcement agencies can apply the findings of this study to develop policies on the punitive measures to be imposed upon individuals who depict irresponsible alcohol and tobacco usage. Additionally, the Marketing Society of Kenya should lobby with the government to establish a Social Marketing Association-Kenya Chapter to facilitate benchmarking in the development and execution of more effective social marketing programmes.