Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Dichloromethane: Methanolic Extract of Caesalpinia Volkensii and May Tenus Obscura Cuf. in Animal Models.
Mwangi, Boniface Maina.
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The purpose of physiological pain is protection. Pain is associated with high morbidity and socioeconomic burden. On the other hand, inflammation is the reaction to injury of the living tissues. Conventional medication of pain and inflammation are expensive and arguably associated with various side effects hence the need to develop alternative agents. C. volkensii and M obscura are plants that grow in Mbeere County of Eastern region of Kenya. This study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory activity and to determine the qualitative phytochemical composition of C. volkensii and Mobscura plants. Each sample, 200g of powder was weighed, soaked separately in a cold 1:1mixture of methanol and DCM and stirred for six hours to obtain the extract. Experimental animals were divided in to four groups; normal group, diseased negative control group, diseased reference group and diseased experimental groups. Pain was induced into rats using formalin while inflammation was induced into the mice using carrageenan. The experimental groups were treated with leaf extracts of the plants at concentration of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 150mg/kg. Anti-nociceptive and anti inflammatory activities in rats were compared with diclofenac (l5mg/kg) as the standard conventional drug. The leaf extracts of C. volkensii reduced the paw edema by between 6.50 - 13.42% while the extracts of M obscura reduced it by between 4.94 - 22.36%. Diclofenac reduced the paw edema by between 4.11% - 10.47%. For antinociceptive, the leaf extract C. volkensii reduced pain by between 6.82 - 15.24% in the early phase while the leaf extracts of M obscura reduced it by between 12.39- 34.81% in the early phase, and between 6.4 -12.4% in the late phase. Diclofenac reduced pain by between 7.58- 9.66%, in the early phase, and by 69.87% in the late phase. Phytochemical bioscreening showed that the extracts of C. volkensii had flavonoids, steroids and phenolics while the leaf extracts M obscura had phenolics, terpenoids, and saponins. Flavonoids, saponins and phenolics have been associated with anti-nociceptive and anti- inflammatory activities. Therefore, the study has established that the DCM: methanolic leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii and May tenus obscura are effective in management of pain and inflammation. The study recommends that in antinociceptive studies using rat model, C.volkensii and M obscura at a dose levels of 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight, are effective in the early phase.The study futher recommends the use of dose levels of 150, and 50mg/kg body weight as an anti-inflammatory control.