In Vivo Toxicological and Histopathological Effects of Aflatoxin B1 Exposure and Related Risk
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Aflatoxin B1 are toxic metabolites of Aspergilus flavas and Aspergilus parasiticus which usually contaminant foods such peanuts, corn, and other grains as well as animal feeds resulting into intoxication. Studies have been conducted to elucidated the mechanism of AFB1 toxicity however, there is still a challenge explore the risk associated with AFB1. Therefore,the main objective of this research was to performed toxicological and histopathological analysis of aflatoxin B1 and related risk. Populations of mice were treated with ascending dosed of 3mg/Kg, 6mg/Kg, 9mg/Kg and 12mg/Kg of AFB1. The LD50 was then recorded, the liver biopsy from scarified and dead mice were screened for analysis of distribution of AFB1.Enzyme transaminases activity and total bilirubin content was then analysed by spectrometry,histology was then on performed on biopsy lastly; prothrobin time analysis conducted to assess the effect of AFB1 on blood clotting factors. From the results death occurred within 48hours for most mice treated with doses of 9mg/Kg and 12mg/Kg, biochemical test showed significant increase transaminases (ALT, AST and AP) activity with fluctuation of bilrubin content with gradual increases in prothrobin time (PTT). Liver biopsy showed bile duct proliferation, vacuolation of hepatocytes, enlargement of hepatic cells, fatty infiltration,necrosis, hemorrhage, and apoptosis. We concluded that prolonged consumption of AFB1contaminated feed or food at dose range of 3-6 mg/Kg may result to development of hepatocellular carcinoma while 9-12mg/Kg AFB1 may lead to server liver injury. Thus there are higher risk of AFB1 to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mutagenic andImmunesuppression to both humans and animals.