Antinociceptive Activities of Acetone Leaves Extracts of Carissa Spinarum and Caesalpinia Volkensii in Mice
Mworia, Joseph Kiambi
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Despite the progress that has occurred in recent years in the development of therapy, there is still a need for effective and potent analgesics for pain. Pain is defined as unpleasant feeling essential for body‘s defense system. Pain is managed using analgesics such as aspirin,paracetamol, diclofenac, morphine, opioids, among others. Conventional antinociceptives are expensive and have many side effects. Continued use of these drugs may lead to tolerance. Medicinal plants have been used to relieve pain and form a better alternative. Herbal antinoceptives are affordable and have arguably fewer side effects. Carissa spinarum (Linn) is used to treat rheumatoid pain, fever and inflammation related disorders. Caesalpinia volkensii (Harms) has pharmacological activities that include antimicrobial,immune modulatory properties and antimalarial. These two plants are used locally by people in Embu County as analgesics.This study was designed to bioscreen the acetone leaves extracts of C. volkensii (Harms) and C. spinarum (Linn) for anti-nociceptive potential. The plant parts were collected from Siakago-Mbeere north sub-county, Embu County, Kenya. The samples were prepared and extraction of the active compounds carried out using organic solvent acetone in the ratio1:2.Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups of five mice each: Normal, negative, reference and experimental group.Pain was induced experimentally using formalin and acetic acid. The experimental groups were treated with 50 and 100mg/kg dose quantities of each plant extracts prepared. The acetone leaves extracts of the two plants were evaluated for antinociceptive properties in mice compared to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with doses of the herbs, diclofenac and the vehicle. Thirty minutes later the animals were injected with 0.01ml of 2.5 % formalin in the sub planter region of the left hind paw and the other set with 0.4ml of 5% acetic acid. The total time spent lifting; biting, licking the paw and writhing were counted and scored. The acetone leaves extracts lowered paw licking time in a dose dependant manner, The leaf extracts of C.volkensii at the dose levels of 50and 100mg/kg body weight reduced the formalin-induced pain in mice by 72.74% and 99.38 % respectively and acetic acid writhing by levels of 50 mg/kg body weight reduced the number of writhes by 81.40%, 100 mg/kg body weight did not reduce writhing. C.spinarum at the dose levels of 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg body weight reduced formalin induced pain by3.47%and 34.46 and 20.2% and 95.50% respectively. Acetic acid induced pain in mice by 73.77 % and 86.89 % respectively. Diclofenac reduced the pain by 15.34 in early phase and 98.02% in late phase. Further, the phytochemical screening results showed that the acetone leaves extracts of C.volkensii (Harms) and C.spinarum (Linn) have phytochemicals associated with anti-nociceptive activities. The study has established that the acetone leaves extracts of C.spinarum (Linn) and C.volkensii (Harms) are effective in management of pain. It is therefore recommended that further fractionation of the metabolites of the two plant extracts be carried out with a view to identifying the most active compounds for further development into drugs for management of pain and inflammation.