A study of the relationship between Kenyan secondary school pupils' achievement motivation and educational /0ccupational levels of their parents
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This thesis was a study of the relationship between the Kenyan Secondary School Pupils' achievement motivation (Abbreviated nAch - need for achievement) and the parental education and occupation. The need for such a study was given impetus by the lack of such kind of data in the developing countries, especially Kenya. The study examined and tested four research null hypotheses:- (i) There is no significant relationship between the father's educational level (ELF) and the respondent's nAch (need-far-achievement) score. (i i ) There is no significant relationship between the mother's educational level (ELM) and the res~ondent's nAch score. (iii) There is no significant relationship between the father's occupational level and the respondent's nAch score. (i v ) There is no significant relationship between the mother's occupational level and the respondent's nAch score. The respondent's for this study consisted of a total of 305 Form III pupils from nine (9) in Kwale and Mombasa Districts of Kenya Table 3.1). In each school, the selected pupils were given tests in achievement motivation in form of pictures for them to writes stories about (Appendix D). A questionnaire for obtaining information on parental education and occupation was also administered to the pupils (Appendix A). x ) The stories were scored for achievement motivation following a standard scoring procedure (called 'scoring system C') to obtain achievement motivation (nAch) scores. Parents were classified into four educational and occupational level each, given arbitrary scores 1 to 4. These score (for parental levels) were then correlated, using the Pearson production moment correlation coefficient method, with the nAch scores of the pupils. The results of this correlation were staggering. The correlation between the father's education and the pupils' nAch scores was positive, low and significant (r=O.l20, P(O.05) and that with the mother's education was positive and significant too (r=O.l30, P~O.05) showing that nAch of pupils increases with parents' education. The father's occupation was insiqnificantly correlated with the pupils' need for achievement (r=O.070, P~O.05) while that of the mothers was both positively and significantly correlated with the nAch scores (r=O.l5, p~O.n5 again showing an increase of nAch of children with the occupation of mothers. One-way analysis of variance (A OVA), performed on the pupils' mean nAch scores for the parental educational and occupational levels showed that the differences between these mean nAch scores within the levels were statistically significant. From the above findings, it is recommended that a programme of counselling on career choices for the pupils and training for achievement motivation for the parents, be xi organised so that parents can be trained on how to raise the level of achievement motivation in their children by setting standards of excellence for their children. This may be useful not only in improving their childrens' academic achievement but also in enabling them to succeed later in life.