Development of Biomass Wastes Briquette Stove for Domestic Use
Mulindi, Humphrey M.
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Biomass energy in the form of woodfuel and charcoal contributes close to 68% of the total energy demand in Kenya. The continued depletion of biomass resources has led to the use of agricultural residue to supplement energy needs for domestic cooking. Biomass stoves used to burn these fuels in Kenya are characterized by high inefficiencies and high emissions that pose environmental and health risks to the users. This research aimed to reduce biomass fuels consumption, reduce fuel indoor air pollution and deforestation. The project was carried out in two phases. First, in 2010 there was a survey of the status of bio-waste fuel briquetting technology in Nairobi and peri- urban Nairobi area. Secondly, a semi-gasification stove that uses briquettes derived from solid organic waste material was developed. The survey involved an interview of 63 briquette producers identified from desktop research within Nairobi and its per-urban areas, out of which 40, 15 and 8 were community based groups, NGOs and briquette producing companies respectively. A total 175 briquette users were randomly selected and interviewed from a list of briquette consumers given by briquette producers interviewed. Based on the results of the field survey, a semi- gasifier stove was designed and constructed. The semi-gasifier stove construction took place at Kenyatta University Engineering workshops. Tests were done to determine the thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption and power of the stove. Standard stove emission test were conducted using KANE 455. About 33% of the briquettes made were from a mixture of charcoal dust and paper. Characterization of briquettes was based on their calorific value, percentage moisture, volatile matter, ash content, fragility of briquettes and burning characteristics. The calorific value of briquettes was between 14.21kJ/g and 24.64kJ/g for water hyacinth based and carbonized baggasse briquettes respectively. Moisture content of the briquettes ranged from 5.8% to 14% for carbonized baggase briquettes and for charcoal with bean stocks plus paper respectively. Carbonized coffee husks with starch binder had the lowest volatile matter of 10.1% while coffee husks with paper had the highest volatile matter of 71.2%. Briquettes made from sawdust and paper had the lowest ash content of 8.8% whereas briquettes from charcoal dust and clay had ash content of 66.8%. The percentage fragility of the briquettes sampled ranged from 0.1% to 80.4% for charcoal with clay and sawdust with paper respectively. The semi-gasifier stove had an average thermal efficiency of 30%±3 and an average fire power of 2.5kW±1.5. The emission testing of the stove using KANE 455 gas analyzer for CO, CO2 and CO/CO2 ratios showed the average values of 0.2067 ± 0.0259ppm, 2.6771 ± 0.13307ppm and 2.31374 ± 0.13184 respectively. Economic analysis show that if a family were to invest in the stove, they would save about Ksh 30($ 0.35), Ksh 1000 ($11.7) and Ksh 2200 ($25.8) ,if their initial cooking stove is open fire, kerosene stove and charcoal stove respectively. If a family claimed carbon credits by using the stove, it would be entitled to up to Ksh 8,000 ($94.1) during its entire life. For mass production the stove would retail at an average of Ksh 800 ($9.4). The prototype stove developed was found to meet the intended need for being used by fuel briquettes.