In-Vivo Anti-hyperglycemic Activity and Safety of The Aqueous Stem Bark Extracts of Aloe secundiflora
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Aloe secundiflora has been used traditionally to manage many diseases including diabetes, however, its antidiabetic activity and safety is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo hypoglycemic activity and safety of the aqueous stem bark extracts of this plant in male swiss white albino mice. The antidiabetic activity was screened in alloxan induced diabetic mice using oral and intraperitoneal routes. The safety of the extract was studied in mice that were orally and intraperitoneally administered with 1 g/kg body weight of the extract daily for 28 days by recording changes in body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters. Mineral composition was estimated using total reflection X-ray fluorescence system and atomic absorption spectrometry. Phytochemical composition was assessed using standard procedures. The extract showed significant and consistent hypoglycemic activity at dose levels of 50 mg/kg body weight through oral route and 300 mg/kg body weight through intraperitoneal route. Oral administration of 1 g/kg body weight of the extract decreased levels of platelets, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and direct bilirubin while elevated the level of creatine kinase. Reduction in the growth rate and increase in percent of organ to body weight of brain together with elevated levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, α-amylase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were recorded in mice intraperitoneally administered with 1 g/kg body weight of the extract. The extracts contained tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids. Sodium, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Magnesium were present in the extracts at levels below the recommended daily allowance. The observed hypoglycemic activity and slight toxicity could be associated with the phytochemicals and mineral/trace elements present in this extract.