Information and communication technology adoption in HIV and aids comprehensive care centers in Nairobi county, Kenya
Kibaara, Rucha Kenneth
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In the last decade, information and communication technology (ICT) has offered huge potential to answer many of the challenges that HIV and AIDS Comprehensive Care Centres (CCCs) face in provision of quality services in Nairobi County, Kenya. The objective of the study was to investigate health workers and patients‟ ICT adoption status, indentify their perceptions about ICT, determine factors that influence ICT adoption and determine the real predictors of ICT adoption status of health workers in HIV and AIDS CCCs in Nairobi County. This was a cross sectional descriptive study. Participants (N = 196) consisted of health workers drawn through proportionate stratified random sampling from twenty eight HIV and AIDS CCCs from both public and private hospitals in the study area. Questionnaires from 183 (93%) respondents were correctly filled and returned. Data analysis reflected 183 respondents. Data was collected from the health workers using questionnaires and also from the patients attending HIV and AIDS CCCs through focus group discussion (FGDs). The collected data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative data was analyzed with the use of Predictive Analytic Software (PAS) Version 19. Inferential and descriptive statistics were used. Qualitative data was analyzed by use of content analysis. The results showed that most (57%) of health workers had not adopted ICT. Results indicated that there is significant relationship between respondents status of ICT adoption and type of CCC (χ² = 0.117; df = 1; p = 0.032) with those from private CCCs more likely to adopt compared to those from public ones. The findings revealed that majority (77%) of health workers have positive perception of ICT drivers and ICT contributors (68%). Findings showed that most (47%) respondents with positive perceptions were more likely to adopt ICT. The results also showed significant relationship between adoption and health workers‟ perceptions of ICT access, personalization, security, site aesthetics, flexibility and optimism. Chi-square results at 0.05 probability error revealed significant relationship between adoption and factors of ICT training, quality of systems, information intensity, management support, technological resources, financial resources, complexities, compatibility, affordability, information security, image of facility, competitive pressure and patients‟ pressure. Multiple Regression results showed that the perception predictors were ICT access, personalization and information security. Findings showed that some of the factors that predict adoption status are ICT quality of systems (χ² = 0.000; df = 1; p = 0.000), information intensity (χ² = 19.422; df = 4; p = 0.001), financial resources (χ² = 0.395; df = 1; p = 0.030), technological resources (χ² = 0.395; df = 1; p = 0.030) and patients‟ pressure (χ² = 0.006; df = 1; p = 0.037). The study recommends policies that will help the management of CCCs improve ICT infrastructure and capacity building in order to optimize ICT adoption by health workers. It also recommends enactment of laws and regulations which will favour factors that influence ICT adoption and the actual predictors. This will lead to improved services that will be effective and efficient in HIV and AIDS Comprehensive Care Centers.