Assessment of The Impact of Effluents From Bonite Bottlers and China Paper Industrieson The Water Quality in Karanga River, Tanzania
The raise in industrial development in catchments has left no option but to discharge industrial effluents into water bodiessuch as sea, rivers and streams. Discharging of industrial effluents into water bodies if not done with care through effluent pre-treatment and assurance of complience with allowable standards can lead to water quality impairment. This study was carried outto assess the effects of the effluents from Bonite bottlers and China paper industries on water quality in Karanga river, Tanzania.Specific objectives were todetermine pH, TDS, E.C, temperature, turbidity, colour, TSS, DO, COD, BOD5, total hardness, total alkalinity, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3--N, PO43-, Cu2+,Fe2+and Zn2+ from Bonite bottlers and China paper industries effluents; to examine variation of the same parameters from water in Karanga river and to evaluate the pollutant loading rate of effluents(wastewater) from Bonite bottlers and China paper industries. Samples of effluents from Bonite bottlers and China paper industries and water samples from five (5) selected points in Karanga river were collected and analysed in the laboratory at Ngurudoto defluoridation research institute. Standard methods for water and wastewater analysis were used for analysis; pH, E.C, TDS and temperature were measured in situ. The results for industrial effluents and water samples were then compared with EPA (2002) and TBS (2005) industrial effluent standards and potable water standards respectively.Forindustrial effluents; E.C, colour, BOD, COD, TSS,TDS,turbidity, PO43 and Cu2+ and total hardness were higher than EPA and TBS standards in both months of February and April.Turbidity, TSS, E.C, colour, BOD, COD and PO43-of water in Karanga river after the industries effluent receiving points exceeded EPA and TBS standards for potable waters in both February and April while pH, TDS, temperature, DO, total hardness, total alkalinity, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3--N, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+of water complied with EPA and TBS standards.The excessive concentration of PO43-made the river prone to eutrophication which eventually resulted into degradation of water quality. Results further show that there was a significant variation between the parameters from Bonite bottlers and China paper industries (p<0.05, independent T- test) except PO43-in February didn’t vary significantly. Independent T- test showed significant monthly variation for pH, TDS, E.C, Mg2+, NO3--N, PO43- and Zn2+ in samples from both Bonite bottlers and China paper industries (p<0.05) with higher values for most parameters being in February. For water samples, one way- ANOVA followed by SNK-test showed significant variations (p<0.05) in relation to pH, TDS, E.C, colour, DO, BOD, total hardness, total alkalinity, SO42-, Mg2+, NO3--N, PO43-, Cu2+ and Zn2+in different points in Karanga river while temperature, turbidity, TSS, COD, Ca2+, Cl- and Fe2+didn’t show monthly variation (p>0.05, independent T - test).Pollution loading rate for BOD, COD, TDS, TSS and SO42-from industries wasalso high.The implication of the results is that China paper industry is more polluting and cause effect in water quality downstream of the discharge point where water is used for domestic purposes.Therefore, the study recommends that effluents from the industries should be well treated to meet EPA and /or TBS maximum permissible standards inorder to avoid water pollution, however industrial effluent should be monitored frequenty and constantly inorder to insure compliance with allowable standards.