Technical Efficiency of Technical, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Institutions in Kenya
Kariuki, Paul Wanjora
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The three educational systems of primary, secondary, and tertiary levels in Kenya are increasingly faced with resource scarcity and increasing unit costs. The government of Kenya and other international organization have over the years allocated more funds to basic education resulting to underfunding in tertiary particularly TVET institutions. But since 2005 the government has recognized the potential contribution these institutions can make especially towards the realization of The Kenya Vision 2030. The governments in collaboration with external donors have since then channeled significant amount of funds to improve TVET education. A TVET education system in Kenya was studied by comparing used resources with education outcomes. This study sought to establish the level of efficiency in TVET institutions and the determinants of the technical efficiency. Technical efficiency in TVET education systems across Kenya was assessed through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) which is a non-parametric method. The DEA results were further subjected to regression analysis using Tobit model to determine the determinants of technical efficiency of TVET institutions. Output was defined as students' educational achievement, measured by results obtained on standardized tests applied nationwide and graduation rate. Inputs considered were; student enrolment, teaching staff, non-teaching staff and physical facility index. The results of the study show that the overall efficiency of TVET institutions in Kenya is 79.4%. Using the Malmquist index it was clear that total factor productivity in TVET was increased in the period 2009-2011. Further, the study found out that the qualification of teaching staff measured by the number of teachers with advanced degree affected the performance of TVET institutions. The other factor that was found to determine efficiency was the proportion of engineering/science in comparison with art-based courses offered by these TVET institutions. Those TVET with high proportion scored less in terms of technical efficiency. This was could be attributed to the fact that engineering/science based course are more demanding in terms of input resources such as capital equipment. The TVET institutions in Kenya are not well equipped with adequate and modern equipments. Factors such as location of the TVET, boarding facilities and flexibility of modes of learning were found not to have significant influence of efficiency of TVET institutions. The study recommends that government and TVET institutions management should come up with a policy to promote acquisition of higher academic qualifications by the teachers. Equipping TVET institutions with proper, adequate and modern equipment will go a long way in enhancing performance in engineering courses. The TVET must produce the artisans, technicians, craftsmen and technologists required to fulfill the needs of Vision 2030.