Incentive Rating among Selected Kenyan Male Athletes
Mukhwana, Kizito Ongalo
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Not much is known about incentives value rating in team and individual sports and how they affect sports performance in Kenya. In the presence of wide spread reinforcement initiatives, there is need to effectively scrutinize incentive value rating in the diverse Kenyan sporting populations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in responses among Kenyan male athletes in team, individual and combat sports on the selected incentives and their value. The major hypothesis of the study was that there would be no significant differences in incentive value ratings on employment opportunities, public recognition, material and monetary rewards scholarship awards, free medical care and insurance coverage by Kenyan male athletes in team, individual and combat sports. A survey research design was utilized. 120 athletes were sampled hence 40 athletes were selected from each sport (individual, team and combat sport). Simple random sampling was done for the sample selection for each sport. The fish bowl technique was employed.The study employed an extrinsic reinforcer value-rating questionnaire which gathered data on the value rating by the subjects on employment opportunities, public recognition, material and monetary reward, free medical care and insurance coverage. The data obtained were analyzed both descriptively and inferentially. The statistical analysis techniques used was one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), where rejection of null hypotheses was set at p<.05. A Tukey post hoc test (HSD) was conducted to ascertain the source of the difference. The results of this study revealed significant differences amongst Kenyan male athletes in team, individual and combat sports athletes incentives‟ value rating on employment opportunities F (2,118) =26.482 p<.05 , public recognition F(2,118) = 3.771 p<.05 material and monetary F(2,118) =96.204 p<0.5, free medical care F(2,118) = 17.485 p<0.5, insurance coverage F,(2,118) = 5.643 p<.05. With 2 and 118 degrees of freedom equal to 3.07, these values are significant at .05 alpha level (p<.05). Findings on scholarship awards showed no significant differences F (2,118) =1.204 p<.05. A Tukey test (post-hoc) was then conducted to establish the source of the differences. Based on the findings of this study it was concluded that the type of sport was a major determinant of incentive value rating. It was recommended that the government should formulate a sports policy in which sports performance incentives should be spelt out. The relevant government authorities in liaison with sports federations should have some in built performance reinforcer provisions in athletes‟ contracts for potential national and international athletes.