Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis among Community members in Mandera East sub-county, Mandera county.
Abdirahman, S. Abdalla
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Brucellosis is an infectious debilitating, acute or sub-acute febrile illness usually marked by an intermittent or remittent fever accompanied by malaise, anorexia and prostration, and which, in the absence of specific treatment, may persist for weeks or months. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis among community members in Mandera East Sub-County, Mandera County. The study was descriptive cross sectional study which collected both qualitative and quantitative data from where a sample of 420 respondents was systematically selected from heads of 2,617 households form Mandera East Sub-county. The study instruments included questionnaire, Focus Group Discussion guide and Interview Guide. Blood samples were screened for brucellosis using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and the posit ive sera were subjected through Serum Slow Agglutination Test (SSAT) which acted as a confirmatory test. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 20 and results of the study presented in frequencies and percentages in Tables and Figures. Ethical clearance was sought from Kenyatta University Ethical Clearance Committee, permit to carry out the study was sought from NACOSTI and consent sought from the respondents. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) indicated a prevalence of 24.8% (95% CI: 20.0–29.6) and Serum Slow Agglutination Test (SSAT) indicated that the prevalence was at 14.3% (95% CI: 8.7– 19.9) among the respondents. The study showed that the seroprevalence was higher among the male respondents (98%; n=103) as detected through RBPT and (98%; n=57) confirmed through SSAT. There was significant relationship between the gender and seroprevalence as tested through RBPT (P<0.001) and through SSAT (P<0.001). It further showed that the majority of the respondents (69%) was aware of the disease and that 31% (n=130) took fermented milk without boiling, while only a few (6%; n=25) of respondents pasteurized it. There was a significant relationship between the respondents’ milk preparation practices before consuming and brucellosis status using RBPT (χ2=17.115; df=4; p=0.002) but not when tests were done through SSAT (χ2=8.737; df=4; p=0.068).Factors associated with the spread of brucellosis among the community members in Mandera East Sub-county included directly getting into contact with animals such as goats, cows, wild animals dogs, camels, and sheep and taking poorly prepared milk; consuming raw blood from livestock; taking raw or poorly cooked meat and getting involved in various activities touching on livestock. Scaling up of awareness of brucellosis among the community members was required. This can be done by the relevant Ministries in County government of Mandera and the Ministry of Health and of Livestock should evaluate a possibility of undertaking brucellosis campaign.