Headteachers' instructional supervision- practices and the challenges they face in public primary schools in Asego division - Homa bay county, Kenya
Opoko, Joseph Arot
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One of the objectives of primary education is to provide quality education to children so as to acquire the basic skills, knowledge and values that enable them to fit well into the society after they graduate from school. The nature and quality of instructional supervision is presumed to have effects on teaching and learning in schools but very little is known about the practice and challenges head teachers face in instructional supervision in public schools in Asego division. The purpose of the study was to determine how instructional supervision is practiced in public primary schools in Asego Division and the challenges head teachers face in the course of undertaking their instructional supervisory roles. The study objectives were to determine the extent to which instructional supervision is practiced by head teachers in public primary schools in Asego division; determine the challenges, and suggest how instructional supervision can be improved in public primary schools in Asego division. The.study reviewed related literature focusing on the aspect, purpose, the practices and challenges of instructional supervision. The study adopted a descriptive survey' method. Open and closed ended questionnaires were used to collect data. Two schools that were not included in the study were randomly selected for piloting. The study was carried out in 20 schools randomly selected out of the targeted population of 60 public schools in Asego Division. A total of 20 head teachers of the selected schools were included in the study. Data collection process began with permission from the National council for science and innovation, the county commissioner and county director of Education-Homa Bay before familiarization tours to schools and preparation of enough questionnaires to the head teachers. Questionnaires were administered to the respondents by the researcher. The data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics, frequency and percentages were used to present the data. Findings from the study revealed that instructional supervision practices were inadequate with majority of head teachers 16(89%), and 15(83%) indicating that they were not regular in lesson observation in class and induction of new teachers respectively. It further revealed that 16(89%) and 15(83%) face challenges like role overload and negative attitude by teachers towards instructional supervision. A majority of head teachers 17(94%), and16(89%) suggested the need to organize in-service training for teachers and head teachers' motivation respectively as some of the strategies to improve instructional supervision in public schools. It is recommended that head teachers be relieved some of the administrative duties to devote more time to instructional supervision. It is also recommended that regular in-service training be organized in schools to sensitize the teachers on the importance of instructional supervision and positively participate in instructional supervision activities for professional growth. The Teachers Service Commission should post enough teachers in schools to alleviate the problem of understaffing and relieve the head teachers the current teaching load to enable them dedicate most of their time to instructional supervision. The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology should allocate more funds to cater for the buying of Teaching/Learning materials.