Work Life Initiatives and Performance of Employees of Commercial Banks in Kenya
Muli, Jedidah Vika
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Work family conflict is a challenging dilemma for working adults as well as the employers. Therefore, employers are gradually appreciating the importance of integrating work life initiatives as a means of attaining commitment, job satisfaction and employee performance. This study examined the separate and combined effects of work life initiatives (flexible work arrangements, HR financial incentives, HR work family support services and spirituality), leadership and employee behaviour as predictors of employee performance in Kenyan commercial banks. The specific objectives were; to determine the effect of flexible work arrangements on the employee performance; to analyse the effect of HR financial incentives on the employee performance; to assess the influence of HR work family support sevices on the employee performance; to establish the influence of spirituality at work on the employee performance; to determine the moderating effect of leadership on the relationship between work life initiatives and employee performance and finally to establish the mediating effect employee behavioural outcomes on the relationship between work life initiatives and employee performance. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to gather quantitative and qualitative data from employees of the 43 commercial banks in Nairobi County, Kenya with a target population of 3607. Proportionate Stratified random sampling design was used to select a sample size of 360 respondents. Primary data was collected using self-administered questionnaires which were dropped and picked later, in addition interviews with HR managers were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics, in descriptive statistics data was summarised using percentages, mean and standard deviation while in inferential statistics, multiple regression analysis using stepwise and forced regression method was used. All the analysis was done using stata statistical package. Content analysis was used for qualitative data. The findings indicate that there is a significant positive statistical relationship between HR financial incentives and HR work family support services with employee performance. The findings showed that employee behavioural outcomes namely; affective commitement and job satisfaction partially mediate the relationship between work life initiatives and employee performance. In addition, the findings revealed that leadership was an explanatory variable in explaining the relationship between work life initiatives and performance. Furthermore, the findings supported the theoretical foundations of the social exchange theory that employees tend to exchange profitable efforts with the gains they perceive to be mutual from their employers. The study suggests that to accomodate HR financial incentives, an organisation needs to formulate rewards based on present or past improvement of individual or unit perfomance. On HR work family support services, the study recommends that there is a need to include all cadres of employees into the programs and standardise the services to all sectors. Training of leaders to embrace transformational and transaction leadership skills should also be done by HR managers. Lastly, the study suggests that future research should focus on extending the work life initiatives study to other sectors for further support of generalisation of findings in all sectors.