Demographic Characteristics of Households and House Ownership Status Influence on Water Demand in Ruiru Municipality, Kiambu County, Kenya
Obando, Joy Apiyo
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The study evaluate demographic characteristics and their influence on household daily per capita water demand and also analyze how property (housing) type/size influences water demand in Ruiru Municipality, Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 210 households using both closed and opened ended questionnaire and an in-house observation guide across the three income areas of Ruiru Municipality, Kenya. The obtained data was statistically analysed using descriptive statistics, step-wise regression model and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that household size, age of household head and price policy of water (43.7%), household size (29.7%) and household size and price policy of water (21.4%) were the predictors of household daily per capita water demand for low, middle and high income areas respectively. Household daily per capita water demand across the three income areas was not associated with house type/size at significant of p>0.05. The findings indicate that water is not used efficiently in the municipality. The findings strengthen the need for stringent measures to attain sustainable urban household water demand management and water institutional capacity should be given special attention. The study recommends for policy implication based on an integrated watershed management (IWRM) approaches which involve a combination of immediate replacement of water used amenities for high water efficient types; water pricing that reflects the economic level of the areas to encourage efficient use; water amenities on the different markets should display water efficiency label that can communicate to buyer; promotion of educational and sensitization programs that encourage households and house owners to adopt water conservation technologies like rain water harvesting, household level treatment of wastewater for flushing toilet.