Overweight and obesity in relation to dietary intake and Physical activity among adolescents aged 15-19 years attending day secondary schools in Kisumu district
Okoth, Maureen Awuor
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Overweight and obesity are risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Globally, it is estimated that 10% of adolescents are either overweight or obese while in some countries this figure is as high as 35%. Although the consequences of overweight and obesity are rare during adolescence, their persistence in adult life is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has been increasing in the recent past and yet there is paucity of data in Kenya. The purpose of this cross-sectional analytical study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents attending day secondary schools in Kisumu East district. Kisumu East District was purposively selected because it is located in a fast growing urban and cosmopolitan setting. Multistage sampling technique was used to obtain the study sample. Four day mixed schools; two public and two private were randomly selected using random table numbers from a list of all mixed public and private day secondary schools in Kisumu East District. At each school, adolescents were randomly selected from each class proportionate to gender making a sample of 387 adolescents. Data was collected by use of researcher-administered questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were measured to determine Body Mass Index and Bio electrical impendance analysis was used to measure percent body fat. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations were used to describe characteristics of the sample. Inferential statistics (ANOV A and t-test) were conducted to test the differences between dietary intake and physical activity and overweight and obesity while Chi Square test was used to find the relationship between these variables. Dietary intake was analysed using nutrisurvey 2007. Physical activity levels were determined by PAQ-A (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents). The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity using both BMI and BIA was high. Based on BMI 18.7% of the female adolescents were overweight and 2.1% obese while 10.3% of the male adolescents overweight and none was obese. Based on BIA, 36.3% of the female students were overweight and 18.1% obese while 41.8% of male adolescents overweight and 55.7% obese. The adolescents in the private schools had a higher prevalence of obesity as the public schools had a higher prevalence of overweight at p<O.OO1. Overweight and obesity were inversely related to physical activity and intake of carbohydrates, legumes, sugar and sweets and fruits and vegetables and positively related to dietary intake of fats, proteins and Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Based on these findings, efforts should be made to address overweight and obesity among adolescents by addressing dietary intake and physical activity level in secondary schools in Kisumu East District.