Challenges to implementation of curriculum in non-formal secondary schools in Kiambu East District-Kiambu County, Kenya
Waiyai, Edith Wanjiru
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For economic advancement to occur, there must be an adequate skilled human resource that is productively employed. The hope to achieve Universal Primary Education by 2005 and raise transition rates from primary to secondary from 40% to 80% remains unfulfilled. The national objective to promote Non-Formal Education (NFE) and establish mechanisms for transition into formal education has not been put into place. Owing to the importance of education in society today and the need to develop new approaches to NFE within the context of lifelong learning, the development ofNFE programmes for the out of school youth in Kenya is necessary. Previously, cost-sharing strategies in financing education proved prohibitive to most households resulting in the mushrooming of NF schools. These schools provide cheaper education than the formal schools as requirements on parents are limited. This study investigated the challenges to implementation of curriculum in the NF secondary schools in Kiambu East District. The study involved a critical review of relevant literature to shed light on this topic and also to identify gaps that justified the need for this research. It adopted the survey research design. The target population consisted of all the 15 NF secondary schools in Kiambu East District, all the head teachers, 95 teachers and 1116 learners. Detailed questionnaires were used to gather data from the teachers, the learners and the head teachers. Observation check lists were used by the researcher to observe the situation in each of the schools. All the 15 NF secondary schools were used in this study. One school was used for the piloting of instruments and the rest (14) used for the actual study. The study used 28 teachers; 2 from each school, who were sampled using the rotary method, all the 14 head teachers and 112 learners, 8 from each school. The learners were sampled using random number tables. A pilot study was done to establish the validity and reliability of the research instruments. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were presented in frequency distributions and percentages shown in tables, graphs and pie charts. The major finding was that NF secondary schools in Kiambu East district did not have adequate teaching/learning resources and that there was a critical shortage of physical facilities. The study also found that the major challenge teachers in these schools face is being underpaid leading to demotivation. Challenges faced by learners include; poor financial background, inadequate teachers and inadequate T/L resources among others. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the NF secondary schools be provided with adequate T/L resources and that the government should employ teachers in the NF secondary schools to retain them.