Relationship between Parenting Styles and Preschool Children’s Performance in Curriculum Activities in Kisauni District, Mombasa County, Kenya
Ashiono, Benard Litali
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Extensive studies have been conducted on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents’ academic performance. However, limited studies have focused on the relationship between these styles and preschool children’s performance. The current study sought to establish the relationship between parenting styles and preschool children’s performance in curricular activities in Kisauni District. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool children to participate in the study. A sample size of 160 pre-school children together with their parents was purposively selected based on their performance level in curricular activities from 20 pre-schools. A questionnaire and an interview were used to collect data on parenting styles. Further, data on pre-school children’s performance in preschool activities were collected through document analysis of children’s progress reports. Test-retest procedures were used to establish reliability of the instruments. The instruments were found to be positively correlated at r=0.914, using Pearson Moment Correlation technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to prepare and organize data for analysis to test significance levels between variables at 0.05. Data were analyzed statistically using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and one way ANOVA techniques were utilized to establish whether there exist any significant relationships or differences in the means between the study variables. The findings of the study indicate a significant relationship between parenting styles and children’s performance in preschool activities. The study found relationship between authoritative parenting style and children’s performance was significant where r = 0.882 and p = 0.00 < 0.01. Authoritarian parenting style was negatively correlated to children’s performance in curriculum activities where r = -0.261 and p = 0.002 < 0.01. There was no significant relationship between permissive parenting style and children’s performance. The study found a significant difference in means of parenting styles among parents of different employment status where p = 0.000 < 0.05 with a calculated F = 11.565 at 2 degrees of freedom. It also found a significant difference in means of parenting styles among parents of different income levels where p = 0.012 < 0.05 with a calculated F = 3.336 at 4 degrees of freedom. Parents’ marital status and education were found to have no influence on their parenting styles. It was therefore concluded that parenting styles significantly influence children’s performance in preschool activities. Factors that were found to influence parents’ use of specific parenting styles were employment status and income. It was recommended that there is need for school managers and administrators to develop programmes that would sensitize parents on use of optimal parenting styles and related practices.