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dc.contributor.authorRombo, G. O.
dc.contributor.authorMuoki, M.
dc.date.accessioned2014-01-07T08:22:24Z
dc.date.available2014-01-07T08:22:24Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/8378
dc.description.abstractIt was reported in the Standard of 15th May, 2009 that there is an increase in cases of rickets in Naivasha Hospital especially among children of parents working in flower farms. This paper aims to explain what rickets is, and to establish its prevalence and distribution in Kenya. Rickets is poor deposition of calcium in bones which leads to easy breakages or bow-leggedness. Calcium is normally deposited in bones as Calcium phosphate but high contents of fluoride intake in food or water may hinder its normal deposition in bones. Uptake of calcium by bones is hampered by the high fluoride content of most natural water sources in the Rift Valley of Kenya. Naivasha Town is right in the middle of Rift Valley where high fluoride contents have been reported before, in rivers, bore holes, soil and even dust of the air. The report has established certain constraints in day care centres where services for child care are offered. However, after extensive review of literature, it was concluded that the rise in observed rickets could be due to contamination by fluoride in the water consumed around Lake Naivasha which might have been compounded by lack adequate exposure to sunshine among the said children. The rise in fluoride concentrations could also be due to the lake drying up due to lack of replenishment from tributaries which have themselves dried due to deforestation in the catchment areas or even, from global warming. The level of fluoride in drinking water and foods consumed around Lake Naivasha are much higher than the 0.5-1.5 ppm recommended by the World Health Organisation. While the incidence of rickets is becoming worrisome in the rift valley, it’s important to note that it’s been established through empirical evidence that fluoride concentrates can enter public water systems from natural sources including runoff from weathering of fluoride containing rocks and soils and leaching from soil into groundwater. Fluoride pollution from industrial waste can also contaminate drinking water supplies. In this regard, it would be important through this literature review to establish whether diatomite and fluorspar wastes from industries Kerio Valley and Gilgil, have found way into surrounding domestic water supplies. Hence, policy to regulate fluoride in drinking water to acceptable levels and concentrations are required. Also establishment of guidelines to protect the public from exposure to harmful levels of fluoride is in dire need. This discussion paper will offer a debate that will inform appropriate practices minimising rickets prevalence.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectRicketsen_US
dc.subjectCalciumen_US
dc.subjectV itamin Den_US
dc.subjectFluoride contenten_US
dc.subjectFooden_US
dc.subjectWateren_US
dc.titleRickets in Rift Valley: A Review of Manifestation and Links with Flouride Contents of Drinking Water Suppliesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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