Efficacy of Selected Agro Industrial Wastes in Managing Root-Knot Nematodes on Black Nightshade in Kenya
Nchore, S. B.
Kariuki, G. M.
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Black nightshade is commercially cultivated in Kenya as a source of nutrition and income to the rural populations. Besides insect pests, root-knot nematodes (RKN) are important production constraints of this vegetable. Little information is available on the efficacy of Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl (TD) and agro-industrial wastes of pyrethrum marc (PM) and tea residue (Tres) on RKN. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the optimum levels of amending soils with TD, PM, vegetable waxy resins (VWR), Tres and cattle manure (CM) at their respective rates for management of RKN. The amendments were incorporated into the soil 14 days before sowing the seeds. Thereafter 21-day-old seedlings were inoculated with ten egg-masses, with four replications arranged in randomized complete block design. Plant growth and disease parameters were assessed and subjected to ANOVA. Disease severity and population reduced significantly at levels 2 and 3 for most amendments with the highest top biomass recorded in CM, TD and PM. Higher levels of Tres and VWR caused stunting and reduced biomass. Lower severity occurred in VWR, Tres, PM, and CM at 20%, 28.0, 9.0, and 9.0 g/kg soil, respectively, with reproduction ranging from 0.3 to 3.7 recorded on amended soils with Tres at 32.0 g/kg, TD at 8 g/kg soil and CM at 9.0 g/kg. Higher yields, lower severity and reproduction were found on soil with PM, Tres, TD, CM and VWR at 9.0, 28.0, 8.0, 9.0 g/kg soil, and 20.0%, respectively. These amendments are alternatives in ecofriendly management of RKN and other plant parasitic nematodes.