Assessment of voiding function in inhabitants infected with Schistosoma haematobium.
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Voiding function of Schistosoma haematobium infected students was evaluated in 45 schoolboys in Kwale district, Coast province, Kenya, using a questionnaire and uroflowmetry. Sixty-eight schoolboys who were S. haematobium negative were also examined. Symptoms related to the lower urinary tract were qualitatively assessed using the International Prostate Symptoms Score (I-PSS) questionnaire. The I-PSS showed that S. haematobium infected boys felt the need to strain to urinate and post voiding some urine still remained. To examine the disturbances revealed by I-PSS quantitatively, voiding was assessed by a portable uroflowmeter and a bladder scanner. Unexpectedly, no significant residual urine post voiding and no decline in urine flow rates were found in S. haematobium infected boys. However, volume-corrected maximum and average flow rates in S. haematobium infected boys were higher than in those not infected. These results suggest that cystitis associated with S. haematobium infection causes irritation and hypercontraction of the bladder.