Challenges affecting women's progression to management levels in government ministries in Kenya
Namodi, Jemimah Abwoga
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The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of challenges to women's progression to senior management positions within Government ministries in Kenya. The starting point was in statistics and earlier women-in-management literature, which show that women leaders represent a minority of the managerial population. Promoting equality of opportunity involves more than the elimination of discrimination as public authorities are obliged to have regard to the need for affirmative action to correct disadvantages amongmen and women under the new constitution. Women in Kenya have for a long time championed good leadership and meritocracy in the hiring processes however, corruption, retrogressive customs and traditions, sexual and gender based violence has hampered effective participation 6}\:\Vomenin public office. The study objectives were to establish the attitude of women towards management positions in government ministries, extent to which management style affects women's progression to management levels, organizational culture effect on progression of women to management levels and the effects of human resource policy on progression of women to management levels in governmentministries. The research employed a descriptive survey research design, which was deemed appropriate because it handles situations or events that have already occurred, investigates variables with-the same characteristics and does not manipulate the variables. A questionnaire was used in data collection. Purposive sampling technique was used in identifyingthe departments for the study; permanently employed staffs were selected using simplerandom sampling. The target population for the study was 100 with a sample of 20 being selected from each of the five ministries selected. Data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively facilitated by SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science) Computer package. Data was presented in tables, graphs pie charts and frequency tables. From the findings it was concluded that women's progression into higher management levels in the government ministries is highly ·aff~'cted.by the organizational culture, management styles, human resource policy and the women's attitude. It is also clear from the research that government ministries need to adopt gender equality policies in all government institutions.