Factors influencing the attitude of students, teachers and other educators towards inclusive education: a case of Nairobi Integrated educational programme, Kenya
Keitany, Julia Jelagat
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The purpose of the study was to explore the attitudes of learners, teachers and other educators in integrated programmes in Kenya. The objectives of the study were: to identify social and cultural factors that influence attitudes of learners towards inclusion; establish the teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education: examine school administration views on students' attitudes towards inclusion; examine the role played by Ministry of Education in addressing the issue of attitudes among learners with VI and those without towards inclusive education. The significance of the study is that the findings can be used to enhance special education services in a developing country like Kenya. The study assumes that although inclusive education has been recommended for implementation in Kenyan schools, attitudes are threatening to add another impediment to the development and success. The literature was studied under the following headings; socio - cultural factors influencing inclusive education; students attitudes towards inclusion: teachers' attitudes towards inclusion; a global view, Ministry of Education reports on inclusive education and integrated educational programme in Kenya. The research design which was used in this study was descriptive survey. The study was carried out in two integrated primary schools in Nairobi. These schools were Kilimani and Our lady of Mercy Primary Schools. The target population was 886 comprising Ministry of Education officials, (MoE), head teachers, class teachers and learners. The sampling procedure employed in the study was purposive sampling for all the participants. The sample size consisted of two MoE, two headteachers, seven class teachers, 12 learners with V I and 40 sighted learners. Two instruments were used in the study. These were questionnaires and interview guide. For reliability purpose, the researcher used split half techniques of assessing reliability. The two instruments were similarly treated and a correlation co- efficient of about 0.65 was achieved. Content validity of research instrument was ensured through construction of questions which are representative of all the possible questions. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The open-ended items in the questionnaire were extracted and then coded. The findings indicated that headteachers and MoE officials view inclusive education as a good idea. However, most parents are not concerned with integration and are marginally involved. Majority of the teachers were of the view that the training they got did not prepare them adequately to meet the educational needs of learners with VI. It also featured that most of the teachers are not patient with learners with VI in class. There is also lack of enough writing and learning materials for learners with VI. The study recommended that sensitization should be done in schools and community to eliminate negative attitudes towards inclusion, more teachers to be trained in SNE and schools and community to be made barrier free. The study suggested the following areas for further studies; bullying and students with disabilities, attitudes of parents and teachers towards schooling of students with disabilities to be researched further.