A critical analysis of indigenous Kenyan music procedures: developing the embedded pathway approach model for interactive learning for secondary schools in Kenya
Mushira, N. Evelyne
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This study was carried out against a backdrop of current educational process in Kenya which (the process) is heavily grounded on Western education models. These models, unfortunately, were not known for including African music in the general music curriculum, to say nothing of apportioning adequate time for music on the time-table. Such practices have not been successful in yielding musicianship that is vibrant and practical. The aim of the study, therefore, was to explore the instructional promise of' selected indigenous Kenyan music processes as possible models for curriculum design and implementation with the objective of developing a formal approach for secondary schools in Kenya. The study was prompted by the need to confirm AFT can music, an oral art, in contemporary formal music education. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive change in music expectancy scores when students are instructed through indigenous Kenyan music processes. The theoretical framework constituted of the socio-cultural and music learning theories. The study was conceived upon a music learning process illustrated as concentric circles learning pyramid model (CCLP model) A combination of documentary and experimental strategies provided the overall study design. The study was piloted and necessary adjustments made on field logistics as well as research instruments. Documentary procedures through literature review identified and reinterpreted indigenous Kenyan music processes. A total of 6 out of 29 articles on indigenous Kenyan music authored from 1954 to 2005 were reviewed, having been drawn out through a process of theoretical sampling. Call and response, through content analysis, emerged as the most prevalent process of indigen a Kenyan music (33; 52.38%). An experiment was designed to test the study hypothesis. Key variables were identified as a) music expectancy achievement (dependent), and b) call and response instruction method (independent). Variables that were manipulated for control purposes included: gender; region; and teacher/learner preparedness among others. Schools from two out of the eight provinces in Kenya constituted the study sample, the population having been defined as students attending secondary schools that offer music as an examinable subject under the 8-4-4 system. Results from both control (n=81) and experimental (n=87) groups yielded t-values of 0.355 and 8.927 respectively. These results upheld the key study hypothesis which had predicted a positive relationship between music expectancy achievement and the call and response a process of instruction. The second hypothesis having focused on a gender based differentiation with regards to music expectancy performance by reason of the new instruction method was similarly upheld. On the contrary, data did not support the third hypothesis that had conjectured the same outcome but with a differentiation between rural and urban regions. Although a positive change in music expectancy scores was noted, the overall differentiation in performance between the two regions was negligible. Interestingly, supplementary data emerging out of the study yielded notable differentiation in tone and rhythm perception with regards to gender and region. On the whole, implication is showed that indeed, indigenous Kenyan music processes have substantial pedagogic value which is either untapped or used sporadically without appropriate instructional guidance. A proposed instructional method based upon the call and response procedure was consequently developed to supplement current music instruction practices. Such an instructional method however, would need to be continually evaluated to maintain currency and appropriateness. The study recommends that universities and teacher training colleges review their music education programs so as to appropriately address indigenous Kenyan music.