Motivation factors influencing science teachers in public secondary schools: Migori district, Kenya
Ochieng', Owuor Michael
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Motivation is the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviour. Lack of motivation is expressed mainly in departure to pursue other careers more motivating, and low output in the enterprises' concern. From the reviewed literatures, though motivation and job satisfaction of teachers in Kenya has been widely studied and proposals made, a gap still exists as regards motivating factors and how they are prioritized, especially by the teachers handling girls in science subjects. The study was a descriptive survey out in girls' and mixed secondary schools in Migori District and the research utilized Vroom's Expectancy Theory. A questionnaire based on the theory was modeled to suit the science teachers, and another questionnaire was used for the head teachers of the schools in the sample. The final work-motivation score for individual science teachers, and for the whole group was calculated by multiplying the valence, the expectancy, and the instrumentality. At a =. .05 the inferential statistics of t-test and ANOVA were used to test the statistical hypotheses (Ho1-Ho5). The findings of this study reveal that the science teachers in public girls' and mixed secondary schools are de-motivated. Specifically, 68 per cent of the teachers in the sample were de-motivated. No significant difference of the science teachers' motivation based on the school categories, gender of the teacher, educational level, and years of teaching experience were noticed. However, based on main teaching subjects, a significant difference was noted between chemistry and physics teachers. Of the twelve factors under review, the head teachers classified all as motivating, while according to the science teachers, seven were motivating, while five were de-motivating. The best motivators were 'work itself, 'appreciation of work done', and 'job security', while the most de-motivating were 'sympathetic help with personal problems', 'pay increase and bonuses', and 'participation in formulation of national education policies'. Majority of the teachers enjoyed teaching science to the girls, and this positively influenced the instrumentalities. The study recommends that any attempt to motivate teachers must be made contingent to performing well. An open school climate is also recommended, and finally the study recommend that more research be carried out in the area of teacher motivation.