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dc.contributor.advisorCaleb Mireri Felixen_US
dc.contributor.advisorL.M. Ming’ateen_US
dc.contributor.authorNyiratuza, Madeleine
dc.date.accessioned2023-08-10T06:42:48Z
dc.date.available2023-08-10T06:42:48Z
dc.date.issued2023
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/26716
dc.descriptionA thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of doctor of philosophy in environmental planning and management in the school of engineering and architecture of Kenyatta University, April 2023en_US
dc.description.abstractThis study investigated the implications of biodiversity conservation on food security around Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda. The objectives of this study were to examine existing policy and institutional framework in relation to biodiversity conservation at Volcanoes National Park and local food security, examine the effects of changes in land use on Volcanoes National Park and evaluate the contribution of benefits from Volcanoes National Park to local food security. It was guided by the Sustainable Livelihoods and Integrated Landscape Frameworks. To address the research objectives, it used mixed research methods. First, quantitative data involved conducting a survey with a sample size of 400 households, and collection of remote sensed data. Secondly, qualitative data was collected from 21 key informants and 10 focus groups. The study area comprised of a belt of 0km-5km and 5.1km-10km from the park edge to outside to enable comparison of findings in the vicinity of the park and places far away. Policy action gaps and institutional challenges were analyzed using desk review while trends in land use and cover changes from 2000 to 2019 were analyzed using Exelis Environment for Visualizing Images software. Furthermore, food security was analyzed using the Consolidated Approach to report the Food Security Indicators. Analyzed data were statistically presented in the form of figures, tables and maps for easy interpretation. The findings revealed that several policy documents do not mention food security and different institutions did not consider food security in their interventions. Out of the 7 policy documents analyzed, only the wildlife and biodiversity policies, mentioned food security in relation to conservation of protected areas. The study reveals that the geospatial dynamics that took place in the past 19 years inside the park and in a 10-kilometer belt around the park caused big transformations in the landscape. Over time, in some areas, forests and woodlots have been replaced by agriculture and grassland, while in other areas they have been taken over by buildings. The 5.1km-10km belt lost 92.29% of its forest and woodlots while the 0km-5km radius lost 92.52% between 2000 and 2019. Although reforestation efforts are more in 0km-5km belt than in 5.1km-10km belt, deforestation-reafforestation ratio remains wide around the park (12:1 in 5.1km-10km and 6:1 in the 0km-5km). The Volcanoes National Park’s biodiversity is at risk as local people continue to enter the park for trees and bamboo harvesting for firewood, construction and bean poles. Therefore, re-afforestation efforts need to be increased in the two belts around the park to reduce human pressure on its resources. This study reveals that while food security is an important issue that has received a lot of attention in different Rwandan government institutions, its application in Volcanoes National Park’s conservation is minimal. The results also show that 71% of local people around the Volcano National Park, are food insecure with most food insecure households located in the vicinity of the park, within the 0km-5km belt. Although the number of households that benefit from the National Park is still small at 38%, about 72% of them are found in the 0km-5km belt. This reveals that the community conservation and revenue sharing programmes are more invested in the vicinity of the park. Possible entry points to integrate food security into the conservation of Volcanoes National Park include the revision of existing policies, laws and ministerial orders and park management plans. It would also be important to raise local awareness about the provisions of the policies, solve the crop raiding issue, create off-farm jobs around the park, increase access to clean water and improve agricultural production.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.subjectbiodiversity conservationen_US
dc.subjectfood securityen_US
dc.subjectvolcanoesen_US
dc.subjectnational parken_US
dc.subjectRwandaen_US
dc.titleImplications of biodivesity conservation on food security around volcanoes national park, Rwandaen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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