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dc.contributor.advisorMathew Piero Ngugien_US
dc.contributor.advisorAlex King’ori Machochoen_US
dc.contributor.authorOnyango, Osano Kenneth
dc.date.accessioned2023-08-09T09:54:42Z
dc.date.available2023-08-09T09:54:42Z
dc.date.issued2023
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/26687
dc.descriptionA Thesis Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Biochemistry) in the School of Pure and Applied Sciences of Kenyatta University June, 2023en_US
dc.description.abstractDrug induced liver injury (DILI) is caused by prescribed drugs, herbs and various xenobiotics resulting in liver malfunctions. It remains a principal challenge associated with prescribed drugs and a leading basis for withdrawal of approved medicinal products from usage. Presently, a narrow range of drugs are available for treatment of DILI, hence continued search for safe, effective and affordable treatment alternatives such as from plants. The current study evaluated quantitative nutritional profiles, in vitro antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective activities of methanol leaves extracts of Solanum villosum and Solanum scabrum in acetaminophen induced mice models. Vegetables samples were randomly collected from farmers in Uasin Gishu County. Quantitative nutritional analysis was performed based on Association of Official Agricultural Chemist (AOAC) protocols; while phytochemicals analysis was done by LC-MS. Animals were given extract at 30, 100, 300 and 500 mg/Kgbw orally for 21 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced by acetaminophen 300 mg/Kgbw, intraperitoneally on 18th day. Silymarin 25 mg/Kgbw was the positive control. Full hemogram and liver function tests were performed by automated chemical analyzers using blood samples collected from the mice on 22nd day. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were assessed using liver homogenates of euthanized mice. We found out that S. villosum and S. scabrum are endowed with substantial quantities of vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, C and E, in addition to sufficient quantities of the elements Na, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and P. Macromolecules including simple sugars, polysaccharides, crude lipids and crude proteins were also established in the powdered leaves. Similarly, phytochemicals analysis of the methanol extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, which demonstrated in vitro antioxidant activities, linked to the reported medicinal potential. Both extracts enhanced lymphocytes synthesis in dose dependent manner, but inhibited proliferation of granulocytes in mice induced with APAP hepatotoxicity. Further, both extracts demonstrated hepatoprotective activities by marked reduction in plasma ALT, AST, ALP and γ-GGT concentrations in dose dependent manner, following elevations in mice induced with APAP hepatotoxicity. Overall, S. villosum extracts showed higher hepatoprotective activities than S. scabrum extracts at the same dosages. The extracts induced glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase synthesis, and anti-inflammatory activities associated with hepatoprotection. Nutritionally, the antioxidant vitamins C and E, microelements Mn, Zn and Cu that are cofactors to various antioxidant enzymes, and vitamin B6, a coenzyme for transaminases present in the vegetable‘s leaves could further enhance hepatoprotection and promote good health. The present study thus, demonstrated scientifically that S. villosum and S. scabrum are highly nutritious and have hepatoprotective activity against drug induced liver injury therefore, may be classified as functional foods. Their production, consumption or commercialization could be encouraged to deal with the challenge of undernutrition, diet diversification and possible processing as hepatoprotective agents, thus promoting universal healthcare.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.subjectNutritional Analysisen_US
dc.subjectIn Vitro Antioxidant Activityen_US
dc.subjectHepatoprotective Potentialen_US
dc.subjectSolanum Villosum Linnen_US
dc.subjectSolanum Scabrum Millen_US
dc.subjectMethanol Leaves Extractsen_US
dc.titleNutritional Analysis, In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Solanum Villosum Linn. and Solanum Scabrum Mill. Methanol Leaves Extractsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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