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dc.contributor.authorKiio, J.
dc.contributor.authorNduati, R.
dc.contributor.authorKuria, E.
dc.contributor.authorOchola, S.
dc.contributor.authorOkoth, J.
dc.date.accessioned2023-06-29T07:52:09Z
dc.date.available2023-06-29T07:52:09Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.citationKiio, J., Nduati, R., Kuria, E., Ochola, S., & Okoth, J. (2023). Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc in selected complementary foods fortified with micronutrient powders in Kenya. International Food Research Journal, 30(2), 514-523.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.47836/ifrj.30.2.20
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/26008
dc.descriptionarticleen_US
dc.description.abstractFortification with Micronutrient Powders (MNPs) is recommended as a strategy for increasing the micronutrient content in complementary foods. However, plant-based diets commonly consumed in developing countries are rich in phytates and tannins, which decrease the micronutrient bioavailability. The present work analysed the relationship between the antinutrient content, and also iron and zinc bioaccessibility, in home-made MNP-fortified complementary feeding porridges refined with white rice, maize, white sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, Irish potato, and banana samples, which were obtained from the local market and milled into flour. Porridges were prepared using the flour, cooled to 50°C, fortified with MNPs, and subjected to in vitro digestion. Total and bioaccessible zinc and iron were quantified using atomic absorption spectrometry. Tannins and phytates were analysed using Folin-Denis and high-performance liquid chromatography methods, respectively. Porridges were classified as having poor bioavailability if their phytate-zinc and phytate-iron molar ratios were > 15 and > 0.4, respectively. Only pearl millet and soybeans showed tannin levels higher than the recommended values. The lowest phytate level was observed in refined white rice (0.11 ± 0.04 g/100 g), and the highest was in pearl millet (2.83 ± 0.10 g/100 g). Zinc bioaccessibility ranged from 7.31% (finger millet) to 26.05% (corn-soy blend). Only pearl millet porridge was classified as having poor zinc bioavailability. Iron bioaccessibility ranged from 20.73% (refined white rice) to 0.62% (pearl millet). Refined white rice and Irish potato were the only foods with the phytate-iron ratio within the recommended range. Iron bioaccessibility decreased significantly with an increase in both tannin (r = -0.31, p = 0.045) and phytate (r = -0.39, p = 0.01) contents. Zinc bioaccessibility showed a significant positive relationship with tannin levels (r = 0.41, p = 0.008), but an insignificant inverse relationship with phytate levels (r = -0.072, p = 0.700). Iron bioaccessibility was adversely affected by phytate and tannin levels. To improve iron and zinc bioavailability in complementary foods, strategies for lowering the phytate and tannin contents at the household level are recommended.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Council for Science and Technology (NCST) Kenya (grant no.: NCST/5/003/W/2nd call/10) the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) the Association of African Universities (AAU).en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherIFRJen_US
dc.subjectmicronutrient powdersen_US
dc.subjectironen_US
dc.subjectzincen_US
dc.subjectantinutrientsen_US
dc.subjectbioaccessibilityen_US
dc.titleBioaccessibility of Iron and Zinc in Selected Complementary Foods Fortified with Micronutrient Powders in Kenyaen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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