Strategic Detective Approaches and Management of Human Trafficking by the Directorate of Criminal Investigations in Nairobi City County, Kenya
Muendo, Cleophas M.
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Human trafficking is an international crime of major concern with the rise in migration trends around the world, with about fourty million victims today. In East and Horn of Africa, the vice has been identified as one of the leading forms of transnational crime against voluntary, coerced and forced migrants. Regional initiatives for curbing human trafficking seem not effective with prevalence of the vice, necessitating strategic approaches in individual nations. In Kenya, the Directorate of Criminal Investigations (DCI) is one of the government institutions mandated to detect and mitigate the prevalence of human trafficking, with success in these functions not conclusively researched. Thus, this study’s main goal was to evaluate the relationship between strategic detective approaches and the management of human trafficking by the DCI in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Specifically, the study assessed the extent to which multi-agency approach, international cooperation and public sensitization strategies aided the Directorate of Criminal Investigation in managing human trafficking in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Guiding the study were the bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems, complex systems and diversity and inclusion theories. Literature of past studies were reviewed to aid in conceptualization of variables and establishment of study gaps. Descriptive survey research design was adopted while targeting 198 government officers in the Police Service and Immigration department comprising: 105 officers from the DCI, 67 officers from Immigration department, and 26 DCI officers specifically attached at Anti-Human Trafficking and Child Protection Unit. Simple random sampling technique was applied at 50% to acquire a sample size of 99 respondents. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire by drop and pick later method upon piloting to ensure validity and reliability. Data analysis was conducted through descriptive (means and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (linear regression coefficients) with the aid of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences computer software, and presented through tables and graphs. Ethics was ensured through assurance to respondents of freedom to participate, confidentiality and utilization of data for academic purpose only. The study findings indicated that DCI strategic approaches had not been effective in the management of human trafficking in the Nairobi City County. Descriptive results showed low multi-agency and international cooperation by DCI with stakeholder agencies, Further, there was low engagement of the public in DCI policies and operations for human trafficking. Inferential statistics supported these findings showing a positive and significant relationship at 0.05 critical value (multi-agency cooperation 0.033, international cooperation 0.016, and public sensitization 0.021). Thus, improvement of the strategic approaches would enhance DCIs efforts in curbing Human Trafficking. The study thus concluded that DCI strategic approaches have not enhanced human trafficking management in Nairobi City County, but if improved would significantly contribute to the control and eradication of the vice in Kenya and globally. The study recommended that the government should finance the modern equipment and capacity building programmes for DCI, motivate staff and enhance public awareness on human trafficking.