Self-Care Abilities of Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital Renal Unit, Nairobi City County, Kenya
Tangus, Cecily C.
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Haemodialysis is the most common management modality for patients suffering from End Stage Renal Disease. A high number of haemodialysis patients have been reported to have inadequate self-care abilities which negatively affect their haemodialysis treatment outcomes. This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating self-care abilities among patients on maintenance haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital Renal Unit. Census method was used to identify study participants who met the eligibility criteria. Self- and interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire was used in data collection. SPSS version 24 was used in the analysis of data. Descriptive statistics was used to summarise the data. Chi square was used to determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables while predictors of self-care abilities were determined using logistic regression. The findings revealed that majority of the patients on hemodialysis treatment had adequate self-care ability. Patients with secondary and tertiary education were more likely to follow recommended diet (OR 0.824, 95% CI 0.545-1.739) and (OR 0.428, 95% CI 0.251-0.834) respectively. The married and widowed patients were more likely to practice AVF arm site care (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.671-23.259) and (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.928-11.32) respectively. The patients who received social support on compliance to fluid restriction were more likely to follow recommended fluid (OR 2.714, 95% CI 1.856-5.21). Clients who received social support on care of vascular access site were more likely to keep catheter access site clean and dry (OR 5.819, 95% CI 1.05-29.187).The study concluded that self-care ability was significantly influenced by marital status, education level, social support and healthcare provider support. It was recommended that health care team should provide education on self-care to clients with low level or no education in simple ways that they will be able to understand so as to improve self-care abilities. Health care providers to continue offering frequent support to their patients in order to improve their self-care knowledge and skills. Multidisciplinary team to encourage social support as it was shown from the study findings to positively influence self-care abilities among hemodialysis patients.