Effectiveness of Community-Based Approaches to Cross-Border Terror Attacks in Mandera County; 1992-2019.
Moh’d, Ibrahim Abdirahman
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In the 21st century, ne security threats have emerged calling for reconceptualization of security and responses. The growing threats are transnational in character posing threats to both states and human security. This has led to led to redefining traditional approaches to security issues. Therefore, this study examined the community-based approaches to cross-border terror attacks in Mandera County from 1992 to 2019. The following objectives guided the study; to analyze the types of community-based approaches used in responding to cross-border terror attacks in Mandera County; to assess the extent of success or failure of Community-Based Approaches (CBA) in dealing with terrorism and to suggest possible ways of improving community-based approaches in handling cross-border terror attacks in Mandera County. The contingency theory guided the study to achieve these objectives, positing that a community rationally adapts to its environment to fit structure and contingencies. A descriptive survey design was employed, data analysis was done thematically, and findings were presented using tables and figures. The study identified various community-based approaches used, including community policing, use of community elders, use of women as spies, and the local intelligence gathering approach. It was established that while these approaches have extensively worked in detecting terror threats, they have been mainly ineffective in completely eradicating terrorism in the wider Mandera County. Through training, community empowerment is suggested to improve community-based approaches to curbing terror threats in the region.