Human factor and x-ray baggage screening on provision of security and safety of universities within Nairobi city county, Kenya
Wachie, Edwin Oluoch
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X-ray baggage screening has been found to be effective in prevention of unauthorized items from being sneaked into the institutions for provision of security and safety. The X-ray baggage screener has the capability to identify and detect items concealed in different ways; however, unauthorized items still continue to cause threat challenges to institutions across the world, Africa and Kenya. Human factor has been found to be important in the application of X-ray baggage screening for security and safety. Surprisingly, there has been little reflection on the effect of human factor on the effectiveness on screening using X-ray baggage scanner. Using, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Perceived User Resource Model (PURM), this study sought to assess the interaction between human factor and X-ray baggage screening on provision of security and safety of selected universities within Nairobi City County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were: to examine the interaction between training and X-ray baggage screening on provision of security and safety in the universities; to analyze the interaction between supervision and X-ray baggage screening on provision of security and safety in the universities; to determine the interaction between experience and X-ray baggage screening on provision of security and safety in the universities; and, to identify the challenges faced by screeners in X-ray baggage screening task for provision of security and safety in the universities. A cross sectional survey research design was employed to undertake the study. A sample size of 250 respondents were selected for the study. To obtain the sample for the study, stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the participants for the study. Questionnaires and interviews were the main methods of data collection. Quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics: Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis. Qualitative data was categorized and analyzed thematically according to the objectives of the study. The study established that 83% of the screeners believed that X-ray baggage scanner was effective to promote security and safety of universities. The results of the regression, R-Square (0.173) demonstrates that training, experience and supervision affect 17.3% of the X-ray baggage screening on provision of security and safety. From the quantitative data, the study shows that there is a positive significant Correlation between Xray baggage screening whereby: Training (r=0.567, Supervision (r=0.642), Experience (r=0.668). The findings show that the main challenges experienced by screeners are: insufficient continuous serviceability of X-ray baggage machine (63.4%), and insufficient budget allocations for repairs at (61.2%). The study concludes that human factor interrelates and reacts with X-ray baggage machine to improve or weaken security and safety measures outcome depending on the knowledge and commitment of the security personnel. Therefore, objective supervision is important in nurturing guards’ wellbeing to increase job performances. The study recommends that universities to consider budgeting for maintenance and repairs of the X-ray machine, and sensitize their communities on significance of X-ray machine searches, and that similar studies to be conducted with a wider scope in Kenyan rural and sub-urban universities to establish if there would be a variation of results.