Trends of Criminal Activities on Safety of Persons and Property in Nairobi City County, Kenya 2011-2021.
This study aimed to understand the trends of criminal activities on safety of persons and property in Nairobi City County, Kenya 2011-2021. The study's objectives were; to establish the types and changing patterns of criminal activities, to Examine the contemporary causes of changing patterns of criminal activities, and to assess challenges facing the government in deterring emerging trends of criminal activities in Nairobi City County Kenya. The study reviewed previous studies by other scholars concerning trends of criminal activities in an urban setup. The study used three crime theories; Rational Choice Theory, Routine Activity Theory, and Social Learning. The study embraced a descriptive survey and exploratory research design. The study used a target population of 271,290 households drawn from Nairobi City County, Kenya. The target population for the study included, Kenya Police Officers, Directorate of Criminal Investigation, household heads and County Administrators. The research utilized simple random and purposive sampling techniques. The sample size for the research was 225 respondents, derived from Naissiuma formulae. The researcher used focused group discussions, interview schedules and questionnaires on collecting data for the study. During the study, the research gave out 215 questionnaires to the respondents, of which respondents returned 200 questionnaires in time. The study used secondary and primary data sourced from National police service reports and records and analyzed using SPSS software. Quantitative data were evaluated using standard deviation, percentages, and frequency. They were presented in tables, graphs, and pie charts, while qualitative data were analyzed through the themes and patterns formed and presented in narrative verbatim quotation forms. Before data collection, the researcher obtained an authorization letter from Kenyatta University and a permit from National Commission for Science, Technology, and Innovation to go the field. The researcher also guaranteed the respondents of their concealment and privacy during the study. The findings showed that the major cause of criminal activity was 86 percent unemployment, 77 percent drugs and substance abuse,72 percent poverty or low income, 63 percent peer pressure, 63 percent poor upbringing, 46 percent unequal public services, and 48 percent of availability of illegal. The second finding revealed that pickpocketing led with 55 percent as the major type of criminal activity, 51 percent assault, 35 percent gangs as some of the least occurring criminal activities in Nairobi City County. The final finding revealed that the most challenge facing the government to deter changing patterns of crime is poor implementation of laws on corruption at 54 percent, followed by influence by ordinary citizens to corrupt practices at 48 percent, different moral codes and behavior at 37 percent, and 36 percent insufficient resources and regulation by police departments are factors that hinder effective management of crime were the least challenges. According to the study, the researcher noted that increasing day and night patrols, installing surveillance cameras in buildings, revitalizing the Nyumba Kumi Initiative, reducing corruption among civil servants, and educating youths on the dangers of drugs and substance abuse will all help to create a long-term solution to end criminal activity in Nairobi City County. Finally, while the study focused on the trend of crime in Nairobi City County, a related research might be conducted in other Kenyan counties to provide a complete representation of the country's changing patterns of criminal activity.