Security Agency and Peacebuilding in Southern Somalia: Case of Mogadishu
Abdalle, Mohamed Abdiasiis
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Peace has been a major global concern since the fall of the Soviet Union. Many countries became fragile and statelessness in early 1990s,while others teetering on the brink of civil war. Somalia is one of those countries, which its state failed and then collapsed due to civil war erupted throughout the country. After thirty years of senseless fratricide, kleptocracy, and wanton vandalism Somalia yet to have a reliable government with strong institutions and democracy. Peacebuilding trajectory towards state building in Somalia, particularly southern Somalia remains elusive, and the country divided along clan fiefdoms whose interests seems rife and irreconcilable, in which is associated with the trauma of the civil war and mistrust. Moreover, the linchpin of the security agencies’ efforts to partake in peacebuilding, and importantly, reforming security sectors is not in the offing due to weak civilian institutions or based on ethnic connections to preserve political superiority. Therefore, the principal investigator’s aimisto stress peacebuilding and security agency in Southern Somalia by highlighting main challenges hindering to implement durable peace on the ground. The study was directed by the following objectives: to examine the role of Federal Government of Somalia to implement comprehensive peacebuilding among the segmented communities in Mogadishu, to evaluate factors responsible for ineffectiveness of reliable peace and insecurity in Mogadishu and analyze strategies used by civil society in peacebuilding process. The study demonstrates that redressing past grievances; effective justice and national reconciliation among the local communities are always needed as post-conflict peacebuilding and conflict mechanism tools. Reforming security sector, demilitarizing and demobilizing of former combatants is vitally important in post-conflict peacebuilding process. Protracted social conflict theory by Edward Azar will be used in the study. This theory is suitable for peacebuilding and security initiative in southern Somalia in order to achieve durable peace based on win-win situation. The study will employ to use Descriptive Research Design and purposive sampling in order to get a sample which can be used to apply the study area. A sample of 100 respondents will be used in the study, on which inferences will be made concerning the whole community. Qualitative data was analyzed through thematic methods and inferential statistics while quantitative data was presented using percentages, charts, frequency and tables in line with SPSS. The study expected to address how security agencies can contribute to peace in southern Somalia. In light of the study 68.7% of the respondents, agreed that FGS can implement democratization as peacebuilding strategies for preventing conflict. Furthermore, the respondents uniformly agreed that peace could not be achieved without comprehensive reconciliation and reforming the security. The reasons that were put forward to support this were attributed to demilitarization, demobilization, and reintegration that were important in peacebuilding. However, transitional justice, forgiveness and reconciliation should be the first priority to overcome the lapse and relapse intoviolent conflict. The study concluded that civil society and other stakeholder should be considered their role in contributing reliable peace to Mogadishu. To understand the importance of security agencies’ role in peacebuilding, the study recommended: emphasizing on how to be held inclusive peace and reconciliation in southern Somalia by urging the ordinary citizen toinvolve in the peacebuilding process, genuine security structure policy by reforming security sector should be prioritized. This may lead to professionalization and institutionalization of security forces. Civil society should have space to represent entire community where matters of peacebuilding and community development are addressed and discussed. The study suggests that a research on security and peacebuilding should be carried out to deal with future conflicts.