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dc.contributor.advisorGeorge Gacharaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMargaret Muturien_US
dc.contributor.authorAluora, Okoti Patrick
dc.date.accessioned2022-03-31T09:33:44Z
dc.date.available2022-03-31T09:33:44Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/23453
dc.descriptionA Research thesis Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters of Science in Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis (Virology) in the School of Medicine of Kenyatta University, July, 2021ien_US
dc.description.abstractHepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the smallest DNA viruses that infects humans. Because of its ability to cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cirrhosis and hepatitis, HBV is one of the global causes of a high morbidity and consequently mortality. Most studies on HBV in Kenya have focused on its sero-epidemiology. HBV genome is prone to mutations which can lead to occult HBV infection that has been linked to Cirrhotic liver development and HCC. The mutations can also lead to drug resistance among individuals. The genotypic diversity within HBV results to varied characteristics from one genotype to another. To screen for HBV, the Kenya national blood transfusion services (KNBTS) use the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) method to detect the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). This is a serological test that does not show the actual HBV presence in the blood or its genotypic traits. Those who may present with false negative results remain at risk of disease progression in future whose consequences may be liver cirrhosis or HCC. These HBV false negative donors may as well pass the infection to the recipients of their blood and blood products. This study sought to determine the HBV genetic diversity in Nairobi blood transfusion center among the voluntary blood donors and their susceptibility to anti-HBV drugs in current usage. The prevalence of occult HBV, overt HBV and the correlation between HBV infection and the demographic factors were also determined. Testing samples were collected in vacutainers at the point of donation. The samples were transported to the lab in cooler boxes. Sera and plasma were separated from plain and EDTA vacutainers respectively. Serum was used for testing for the HBsAg using CMIA method while the circulating genotypes were analyzed from the HBV DNA extracted from the plasma. The extracted genetic material was then subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and sequencing done using Sanger’s method. The Circulating genotypes and P and S gene mutations were analyzed from the resulting sequences. Data analysis involved bivariate statistical analysis. Where p value <0.05, this was used to indicate association between HBV infection and demographic factors. A prevalence of 2.3% (7/300) overt HBV infection and 2.4% (7/293) occult HBV infection was reported. HBV infection and age, particularly age between 19-28 years, were significantly associated. Nine samples had HBV DNA; 7 HBsAg negative samples and 2 HBsAg positive samples. Several mutations were described among the samples including in the “a” determinant segment of the MHR as well as outside the S gene’s “a” determinant region. Sub genotype A1 was exclusively described in this population. Mutations were as well described in the P gene with varied resistance to several ʟ-nucleoside drugs. Occult HBV infections prevalence is high in this population due to the circulating mutations; an evidence that S gene mutations affect HBsAg detection. The study recommends the revision of the testing platform currently in use to incorporate molecular testing.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.subjectGenotypic Characterizationen_US
dc.subjectHepatitis B Virusen_US
dc.subjectVoluntary Blood Donorsen_US
dc.subjectNairobi Regionalen_US
dc.subjectBlood Transfusion Centreen_US
dc.subjectKenyaen_US
dc.titleGenotypic Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus among Voluntary Blood Donors in Nairobi Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Kenyaen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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