Work-Related Injuries among Slaughterhouse Workers in Nairobi City County, Kenya
Mogute, Jane Riechi
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Workplace injuries are no longer accidents; they are preventable. Increased meat consumption demand in developed countries means production of meat and meat products is poised to significantly increase. Working conditions in the slaughterhouse industry are of public health concern across the globe as it affects majority of slaughterhouse workers. The Slaughterhouse Industry being risky, requires enhancement of its workers‘ safety and health as they are regularly exposed to unsafe situations. This study therefore sought to establish work-related injuries among slaughterhouse workers in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The study specifically focused on socio-demographic factors, prevalence of work related injuries, individual factors and attitude on work safety among respondents. The study adopted a cross sectional descriptive study design in 3 export slaughterhouses, 2 local category B slaughterhouses, 6 local category C slaughterhouses and 3 meat processing plants in Nairobi city county, Kenya. Latitude 0f 1170S and the longitude of 36490E with a total size of 696 sq. Kilometres with a population of 4,397,073 people (KNBS 2019). Clearance to conduct the study was obtained from Kenyatta University graduate school, Kenyatta University Ethical Review Committee, National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) and County director of Vetenary Services (CDVS) Nairobi City County. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used. Quantitative data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained research assistants. Qualitative data collection utilized key informant interview guides and focused group discussion schedules. The study targeted a sample size of 291 slaughterhouse workers out of 846 slaughterhouse workers who were randomly selected from 11 slaughterhouses in Nairobi City County and interviewed. Three focused group discussions were held and 22 key informants interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22.0 was used to analyze quantitative data. Descriptive statistics were used to present quantitative data in form of frequency tables, percentages, pie charts and bar graphs. Qualitative data from focused group discussion sessions and key informants were triangulated with quantitative data as direct quotes or narrations from respondents. Inferential statistics were done using Chi Square tests to determine the association between study variables at 95% confidence interval (p<0.05). The results revealed that the prevalence of work related among slaughterhouse workers in Nairobi City County was 36.2%. The common cause of work related injuries were slips and fall. Wounds or superficial injuries were the most reported injuries. Majority of socio demographic factors such as age (p=0.045), income (p=0.027) and highest level of education (p=0.024) were significantly associated with occurrence of work related injuries. Most of the individual factors such as work experience (p=0.007), awareness (p=0.002), training (0.026), motivation on work safety (p=0.001) and willingness to use personal protective equipment were significantly associated with work related injuries. 55.6% of respondents had negative attitude on adherence to work safety. The level of attitude (p=0.014) was significantly associated with occurrence of work related injuries. The study concludes that the prevalence of work related injuries was 36.2% among slaughterhouse workers in Nairobi City County. Majority of socio demographic factors influenced occurrence of work related injuries which were: Age, Income and level of education. Most individual factors played a key role towards occurrence of work related injuries which included: Work experience, Awareness, xv Training on work safety, Motivation and willingness to use PPES. Also categories of slaughterhouses was linked with level of compliance to OSHA, 2007. There were negative attitude towards adherence on work safety among respondents. These findings shall inform the County government of Nairobi together with management of slaughterhouses to enforce adherence to the policies on sensitization of work place safety, fostering attitude change through; trainings, motivation, self-awareness and use of appropriate personal protective equipment among slaughterhouse workers and circulation of constant reminders to reduce prevalence of work related injuries. This will ensure prevention of work related risks which may lead to ever rising cases of injuries. The study recommends that the income earned by slaughterhouse workers should be reviewed for better payment to avoid rushes at work so as to reduce high employee turnout associated with hiring of inexperienced individuals. Slaughterhouses should innovate injury mitigation measures such as; rewarding workers that promote safety in the slaughterhouse environment, training of workers and mentoring inexperienced employees.