Level of Information and Communication Technology Adoption among Information Technology Managers in Selected Health Facilities in Nairobi City County, Kenya
Sudi, Collins Adego
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Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs) have the potential of improving the quality of service delivery in Health Facilities. The broad objective of the study was to establish the factors influencing the level of ICT adoption in Health facilities in Nairobi City County. The specific objectives were: to determine the current level of ICT adoption in Health facilities, to determine the factors that influence adoption of ICT in Health facilities, and to determine the influence of Health workers attitude on adoption of ICT in Nairobi City County. A cross sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Participant (N=270) consisted of IT managers drawn using the proportional stratification sampling method to represent health facilities at different levels of categorization as per the Kenya Master Facility list. Questionnaires from 220 (81%) of the respondents were filled and returned. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Descriptive (frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (chi-square results) were computed. The green ICT maturity model theoretical framework tool was used to establish the overall level of ICT adoption. The study found that 1) the overall level of ICT adoption in Nairobi County Hospitals is at level two. Specifically, the level of ICT adoption as assessed at different levels showed that the ICT functional sophistication is 27%, technological sophistication is 7%, and system integration is 3% of sampled hospitals; 2) various factors influence ICT adoption at various levels. Specifically technological (χ² = 1.7915; df = 2; p = 0.008), organizational (χ²= 1.6534; df = 2; p = 0.037), and financial (χ² = 2.1944; df = 2; p=0.034) factors were significantly associated with functional sophistication; technological (χ²= 1.7915; df = 4; p = 0.008) and financial (χ² = 2.1944; df = 4; p=0.034) factors were significantly associated with level of technological sophistication while technological (χ² = 7.3827; df = 2; p=0.025), environmental (χ² = 15.5053; df = 2; p=0.000), organizational (χ² = 7.2298; df = 2; p=0.027) , and financial (χ² = 2.1944; df = 2; p=0.027) factors were significantly associated with ICT integration 3). Staff attitudes were significantly associated with technological sophistication (χ²= 3.6675, df = 2; p=0.453) and service integration (χ²= 6.5463, df =2; p=0.038). The study found sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis that ICT adoption in health facilities is not influenced by organizational, technological, financial and environmental factors. Additionally, with regards to the second null hypothesis, the study also found sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis that health workers attitudes do not significantly influence ICT adoption. The study recommends allocation of more resources and support of ICT related management by the Ministry of Health both at the National and County level; that the health workers to be involved in decision making regarding the types of technologies and systems to adopt this enhances acceptability .