Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Kenyan Bank Notes Circulating in Nyeri Town
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Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize bacteria isolated from circulating Kenyan banknotes and also antibiotic susceptibility profiles within Nyeri County. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study and simple random sampling was used to collect 25 of each paper currency denomination. Place and Duration of Study: Samples analyses were done at Outspan Teaching and Referral Hospital (OTRH) laboratory, between March, 2019 and April, 2019. Methodology: Total of 125 currencies of five different denominations were collected from different marketing sources such as Butcheries, Restaurants, Health facilities, Mpesa outlets and Transport Saccos and dropped in sterile bags. The bacterial isolates were characterized on the basis of their morphology, staining and biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Total of 19 different bacterial species were isolated from five Kenyan Bank note currencies. Of these, 37 (52.2%) was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Staphylococcus sciuri ssp.lentus 7 (9.9%), Staphylococcus gallinarum 2 (2.8%), Staphylococcus intermedius 6 (8.5%), Micrococcus sp. 1 (1.4%), Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp.coagulans 2 (2.8%), Staphylococcus sciuri ssp.rodentium 1 (1.4%), Kluyvera ascorbata 1 (1.4%), Proteus penneri 1 (1.4%), Aeromonas media 3 (4.2%), Burkholderia cepacia ssp.komplex (1.4%), Aeromonas enteropelogenes 1 (1.4%), Enterobacter cloacae 1 (1.4%), Klebsiella oxytoca 2 (2.8%), Leclercia adecarboxylata 1 (1.4%), Raoultella ornithinolytica 1 (1.4%), Vibrio metschnikovii 1 (1.4%), Myroides odoratus 1 (1.4%) and Yersinia pestis 1 (1.4%). Overall gram positive and gram negative bacterial isolates exhibited resistance to vancomycin, clindamycin and amoxycilin with percentages 40 (71%), 28 (50%), and 37 (66%) and 9 (64%), 8 (57%) and 6 (43%) respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that Kenyan banknote currencies circulating in Nyeri County were contaminated with different pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria including multi drug resistant strains. Hence, great care must be taken while handling money during the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.