Total Quality Management Practices and Quality Service Delivery in 3 to 5 Star Hotels, Nairobi City County, Kenya
Juma, Alphonce Odhiambo
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The aim of every hotel is to deliver quality service that matches customers’ expectations in any service encounter at the same time remaining profitable. The hotel industry in Kenya is faced with competition emanating from a competitive market described by globalization, changing, and soaring consumer demand for quality services, emerging touristic destinations, and increased value for their money. The hotel industry has now become more competitive than ever before and meeting customer needs is a necessity. Providing quality service determines hotels’ success or failure, hence hotels do prioritize their efforts on improving quality service delivery with the aim of achieving product differentiation, survival, improved market share, and high returns in a competitive environment. TQM has had an immense impact on product and quality service delivery in the manufacturing and other service sectors and therefore hotels can consider adopting the same to make better their quality service delivery. The study sought to establish the effects of total quality management practices on quality service delivery in 3 to 5-star hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study included; to establish the effects of customer focus, employee empowerment, management commitment, and continuous improvement on quality service delivery in 3 to 5-star hotels in Nairobi City County. The research employed a descriptive research design and a cross-sectional survey. Theories employed to inform the study included Crosby’s theory, Deming’s theory, and Juran’s theory. The study used a census approach to collect data from all (30) 3 to 5-star as per the TRA 2018 classification register. The study used purposive sampling for hotel managers and stratified sampling for HoDs. The HoDs were selected from 13 departments that cut across all hotel using simple random sampling. The departments included; food & beverage production, security, front office, IT, safety & emergency, housekeeping, procurement, food & beverage service, finance & control, maintenance, human resources, banqueting, and sales & marketing. A total number of 30 respondents formed the sample size for hotel managers while 117 formed the sample size for HoDs. Research questionnaires were employed to gather primary data. On the other hand, books, academic journals, and other appropriate material associated with TQM practices and quality service delivery were used for literature review. The collected data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted at a confidence level of 95% and a 5% significance level. Data analyzed was depicted in the form of tables, bar graphs, and figures. The findings indicated that customer focus, employee empowerment, continuous improvement, and top management commitment had statistically significant effects on quality service delivery in 3 to 5-star hotels with ‘R’ and ‘P’ values of (R=0. 982; P=0.000), (R=0.946; P=0.000), (R=0.888; P=0.000) and (R=0. 857; P=0.000) respectively. The findings supported the theoretical foundation of TQM practices, which take note of the importance of continuous training of staff, giving priority to customer needs and the need for top management leadership in the adoption and execution of TQM. This study thus recommends that 3 to 5-star hotels should conduct skill gap analysis among staff, build capacity through continuous training, reward employees commensurately, and involve employees in decision-making processes. Further, these hotels should adopt PDCA model, statistical methods to check on quality, clearly defined policies on quality, encourage delegation and teamwork, conduct an internal quality audit, quality assurance, adhere to process control to prevent defective services, benchmark their standards with those of industry best performers and use quality tools make decisions.