Influence of Teacher-Pupil Ratio and Availability of Materials on Achievement of Grade Two Pupils in Kisiicentral Sub-County, Kenya
Mathematical skill is fundamental for learning in school. It is the ability to solve simple additions and subtractions. Mathematical Activities development is a process that spans through early childhood years and it is one of the most essential capabilities children attain as they progress through their early childhood years. Research conducted worldwide shows that school plays a fundamental role in the development of children’s Mathematical Activities. The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes of low Mathematical Activities competence among lower primary school pupils in Kisii Central Sub-county, Kisii County. The factors investigated included accessibility of Mathematical Activities materials and teacher-pupil ratio. This study was guided by Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory. The researcher used descriptive survey method. The independent variables included availability of Mathematical Activities materials and teacher-pupil ratio. The dependent variable was Mathematical Activities achievement levels. The study was carried out in Kisii Central Sub-County Kisii County. Target population included grade two teachers and pupils in primary school. To select the sample of the study, purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were applied. The sample of the study constituted 358 grade two pupils and 90 teachers in the Subcounty. The researcher used interview schedule for class two teachers, Mathematical Activities test for class two pupils and observation checklist to collect data. The instruments were piloted in two primary schools. Content validity was used to test the validity of the instruments while test-retest method was used to test the reliability of the instruments. Data was collected in three stages. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to analyze data. Quantitative data was sorted, edited, coded, entered, cleaned, processed, analyzed. The raw data was summarised and presented using descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages. To establish the relationships between variables, inferential statistics was used utilising the chi-square. The findings of this study showed no significant relationship between grade two pupils’ Mathematical Activities achievement levels and pupil-teacher ratio, a significant relationship between grade two pupils’ Mathematical Activities achievement levels and Mathematical Activities course book ratio, no significant relationship between grade two pupils’ Mathematical Activities achievement levels and Mathematical Activities supplementary book ratio and a significant relationship between grade two pupils’ Mathematical Activities achievement levels and Mathematical Activities charts-ratio. It was recommended that Ministry of Education, Science and Technology organize workshops for teachers to re-equip teachers with Mathematical Activities teaching skills in turn to support learners acquire Mathematical Activities competence skills, employ more teachers in order to reduce teacher-pupil ratio in primary schools and enforce a policy on provision and developing teaching and learning materials. School teachers should improve their teaching skills to help low achievers in Mathematical Activities skills.