Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning of Biology in Secondary Schools in Southern Region, Eritrea
Mehari, Tesfamariam Belay
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Technology has become indispensable in pedagogy world over. Integration of ICT in education improves the quality of education and academic performance. This study sought to investigate the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools of Southern Region, Eritrea. The objectives of study were: to determine availability of ICT resources for teaching and learning Biology in secondary schools of Southern Region, Eritrea; to ascertain teachers' ICT integration skills; to establish teachers' attitude towards ICT integration in teaching and learning; to establish the instructional methods used by the teachers of Biology in classrooms; and to explore the challenges facing teachers and students in ICT integration in secondary schools of Southern Region, Eritrea. The study was guided by the Technology Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model. The study was carried out in secondary schools of the southern region, Eritrea. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The study targeted 27 public secondary schools in the region. Stratified random sampling technique was used to get a sample of 12 secondary schools from 12 sub-regions. The sample of respondents of the study was drawn from these 12 secondary schools of 12 sub-regions. The respondents were 12 school directors, 34 Biology teachers and 175 grade eleven students. Questionnaires, interview and observation schedules were used as instruments for data collection. Questionnaire for Biology teachers and students, Interview Schedule for school Directors, were employed. Piloting and consultation were conducted to establish validity and reliability before the instruments were used for the actual data collection. The data collected included both qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The qualitative data obtained from the open-ended questions were analyzed thematically based on research objectives. The analyzed data was presented in the form of tables and figures. This study found that ICT resources were inadequate in the school; teachers were not well trained on how to integrate ICT in education, and the majority were using a teacher-centered approach in their teaching. The study also indicated that Biology teachers had a positive attitude towards ICT integration in education. Therefore, there was a low level of ICT integration. The study recommends that adequate ICT resources be available in schools for teaching and learning of Biology, teachers need to get adequate pre-service and in-service training on ICT integration in education, the learner-centered approach needs to be implemented in classroom instruction. Finally, ICT needs to be integrated into teaching and learning practices so that learning and performance of learners would be improved.