Principals’ Instructional Supervision and Its Influence on Pedagogical Practices of Teachers in Public Junior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State, Nigeria
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of principal's instructional supervision on pedagogical practices of public secondary school teachers in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study aimed to assess the impact of principals' supervision of teachers' records on teachers' pedagogical practices. Additionally, to establish how principals' monitoring of students' progress affect teachers' pedagogical practices. And examine the extent of influence of principals' classroom observation on teachers' pedagogical practices. Furthermore, to find out if professional development programmes that principals facilitate influence teachers' pedagogical practices and identify main challenges of principals' instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Bauchi state. The study was hinged on Leithwood Theory of Transformational Leadership. A descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The target population comprised 285 principals of public secondary schools; 3,836 teachers and 37 area education officers in Bauchi South Geopolitical Zone. The sample included 29 principals of the selected schools; 384 teachers and 7 Area Education Officers, chosen by random sampling technique. Questionnaires were the main tools for data collection from teachers and principals. Similarly, data were collected through interviews with the Area Education Officers and documents checklist. Experts' review and piloting were used to improve the validity of the research instruments. Cronbach's alpha determined the reliability of the instruments. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data with the aid of SPSS. Thematic approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Simple linear regression was used to test the null hypothesis at .05 level of significance. The study found that principals' checking of teachers' records significantly affect their pedagogical practices (R2=.097, p<.05). And also revealed that principals' monitoring of students' progress significantly influenced pedagogical practices of teachers (R2=.099, p<.05). Furthermore, it was found that principals' classroom visitation significantly influenced teachers' pedagogical practices (R2=.138, p<.5).The professional development programme principals implement was found to have statistically significant influence on teachers' pedagogical practices (R2=.060, p<.05). The research discovered that many principals did not review students' classwork and assessment records. Additionally, it was discovered that the implementation school-level workshops, peer mentoring programme, review of teachers' documents and classroom observation in public secondary schools was inconsistent. Finally, the study revealed that inadequate funding for supervision activities and principals' lack of supervision skills had affected the quality of in-school supervision in public secondary schools. The study concluded that principals' instructional supervision significantly influenced pedagogical practices of teachers in public secondary schools. It was recommended that the State Ministry of Education should organize in-service training for principals to improve their skills of instructional supervision. The study also suggested that principals should intensify supervisory activities to promote instructions and academic achievements. Findings of this study may provide framework in organizing capacity building for in-school supervisory personnel.